Estonia

Population

1,265,420

Population 0‑14

16.0%

Internet Users

84.2%

Facebook Users

590,000

Mobile Subscribers

1,800,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1996 - The Ministry of Education and Research (MER) launched Tiger Leap Program to update the education system by means of ICT and to develop an open study environment. In order to achieve the program’s goals, MER and private sector ICT firms created a Tiger Leap Foundation. Later the subsequent Tiger Leap Plus Program (2001 - 2005) and then the Learning Tiger Program (2006 - 2009) were introduced to provide teacher training and electronic educational materials to go along with the 2001 National Curriculum, which introduces the detailed ICT courses to primary and secondary schools. At the end of the programs, all Estonian schools were connected to internet, received computers reaching the ratio of one PC per 10-20 students, supplied with 100 different educational software, and 10 900 out of 17 000 teachers received ICT methodology training. In addition, education portal was created containing thousands of study materials and teaching content.

2001 - The [email protected] Foundation in the partnership with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications launched an IT security portal that provides information on how to protect computer from cyber criminals. The projects provides basic computer and internet training for 100,000 people, develops and implements the eSchool environment, and with assistance from Open Estonia Foundation, opened nearly 500 public internet access points in rural areas, villages and cities.

2004 - Estonia’s parliament has declared Internet access to be a basic human right and wireless hotspots are available all over the country.Since the country has few natural resources, it values its people highly and has created a ‘knowledge economy’ with a focus on technology.

2005 - Through Partnership to Refurbish Computers for Children project, the Microsoft Estonia and the Estonian Information Technology College has provided 160 companies’s old computers refurbished by the the college students to more than 30 schools catering to special-needs children.

2006 - The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications adopted the Estonian Information Society Strategy 2013, which envisioned ICT as a means to improve the nation’s quality of life and involve its citizens in all aspects of public life. The strategy promoted the uptake of ICT by enterprises and supported implementation of the Tiger Leap Program.

2008 - MER initiated the Laptop for Teachers project. Out of a total of 15,000 teachers in the country, 4,000 received laptops. Due to the economic crisis, this project was halted in 2009.

2009 - A four week campaign “You protect your child in real life. Do it on the internet, too!” was conducted by 14 institutions from the private and public sectors. An advertisement for parents about the dangers of internet were broadcasted on television more than 300 times. During the campaign the Estonian Information System Authority designed a webpage that collects information for parents and children on how to make the internet safer for children.

2010 - The Safer Internet Center (Targalt Internetis) was established from a joint project of the Ministry of Social Affairs, the Estonian Union for Child Welfare, the Tiger Leap Foundation, the Estonian Advice Centers and the Police Board to promote smarter Internet use by children and their parents and the prevention of the online distribution of child sexual abuse material. Through its training sessions, information campaigns, competitions, and conferences, the center helps to make safe Internet for children and provide guidance and expertise for both teachers and parents. Since 2015, the center has been providing assistance in managing the children helpline and hotlines.

The same year, Estonia’s mobile operators signed a code of conduct on safer mobile use by younger teenagers and children. This agreement falls under the umbrella of the European Union’s European Framework for Safer Mobile Use and includes such requirements as the need to offer access control restrictions where adult content is provided. Signatories to the Code take a commitment to raise awareness and promote education for children and parents on safer use of mobile phones and the internet. They also pledge to continue supporting the authorities in their fight against child pornography and to support state initiatives and legal mechanisms for restricting the distribution of illegal content.

2011 - The Ministry of Education and Research implemented New National Curriculum, where Information Technology became a compulsory cross-curricular subject. The curriculum was designed in line with the European Commission’s eTwinning activities that support and develop students’ and schools’ digital and social competencies.

The same year, the [email protected] Foundation completed its Ole Kassas! (Come Along!) project, which was launched in 2009. The project intended to help bridge the digital divide through free internet and e- services trainings, and affordable computers and Internet connections. Through the course of the program, over 100 000 people were trained, and 35 Computer Clubs across Estonia with Microsoft Grant were established.

2012 - In collaboration with Microsoft Estonia, [email protected] Foundation launched SmartLab, which received the country’s best Corporate & Social Responsibility (CSR) program award. Smartlab promotes IT-related afterschool activities among the youth to improve IT awareness and increase the number of youth between the ages of ten and nineteen choosing to study science or IT. More than 600 children and young people have benefitted from sessions teaching them about robotics, programming, web design and mobile app design in the first year of the program. In 2014, Junior SmartLabs program was introduced for kids between the ages of five and ten, where kids learn robotics through the use of legos. In 2015, approximately 5000 kids/teenagers took part in the ICT-activities and 130 SmartLabs were set up.

The same year, #HITSA launched the Program ProgeTiger to enhance technological literacy of teachers and instructors, encourage interest, skills and the involvement of children and young people in the fields of engineering sciences, promote networking between teachers who are active in the field, and support the procurement of equipment for institutions of preschool, general and vocational education.

Furthermore, Estonian Tiger Leap Foundation launched ProgeTiger program, where students in grades 1 to 12 will be able to learn computer programming and creating web and mobile applications. Over 60 teachers have been train code to begin implementing the program in primary schools.

2014 - The Ministry of Education and Research (MER) adopted Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020. One of the five goals of the strategy is to insure that by the 2020 modern digital technology is used for learning and teaching effectively and efficiently, digital skills of the total population improved, and access to the new generation of digital infrastructure is ensured. Furthermore, in collaboration with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, MER implemented third “Knowledge-based Estonia” (Estonian Research and Development and Innovation Strategy 2014-2020) to create favorable conditions for an increase in productivity and in the standard of living, for good-quality education and culture, and for the sustainable development of Estonia.

The same year, [email protected] Foundation initiated Nutikaitse 2017 to raise security awareness among smart device users, developers and retailers and ensure that the development of secure software solutions are user-friendly and easily accessible to all mobile users. The goal of the project is to ensure that 70% of mobile smart device owners in Estonia use their devices in a secure way by the end of 2017.

2015 - European Commission launched the Assessment of Transversal Skills 2020 (ATS2020) project in 11 EU countries, which will run through 2018. The project develops comprehensive learning model to enhance student transversal, 21st century skills across diverse EU national curricula, including the provision of teachers with modern approaches and innovative tools for the assessment of these skills. Foundation INNOVE is one of the 17 international partners of ATS 2020 that will be implementing the project in Estonian schools.

2016 - Ministry launched e-Koolikott, a portal for digital learning materials that allows easy access to digital learning materials from one site. The portal enables teachers to use materials from different websites, combine videos, games, worksheets and other educational tools, and make the created learning kits easily accessible for students and peers. By 2020, schools will be able to provide general education using only digital learning materials.

The same year, the Estonian Safer Internet Center organized Safer Internet Day, where every school in Estonia received a package of thematic educational materials with tests, videos, games, lesson plans etc. A student competition titled ‘Smartly on the Web’ was launched to promote the creation of educational videos about positive and responsible use of online technologies. In addition, the center held “Smartly online – protect yourself and others” conference, in collaboration with the Estonian Police and Border Guard Board, for teens and teachers.

Canee.net

An interactive center for professionals working in the field of child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention in Eastern Europe. It was created in 2001, the website was designed to build upon and promote the professional networks established by the Eastern European Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

Expert Group for Cooperation on Children at Risk (EGCC)

The group is the Children’s Unit at the Council of the Baltic Sea States Secretariat that aims to create safe and secure environment for children in the Baltic Sea Region by promoting cooperation on child rights and protection issues. The work is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant international and regional conventions, recommendations and guidelines.

GSMA Europe

This industry association represents the interests of European mobile network operators. The group engages in lobbying in areas such as children’s use of mobile phones, privacy, digital inclusion and reducing the digital gender gap. In 2008, the organization formed a mobile alliance against child sexual abuse content.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Europe

The ITU is is the UN agency for ICTs. Areas of focus in Europe include improving E-accessibility in Central and Eastern Europe, transitioning Europe to digital broadcasting, and sharing best practices for implementing e-applications.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

A Survey on the Transposition of Directive 2011/93/EU on Combating Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography (2016)

Together Against Sexual Exploitation of Children

The study examines how seven key provisions of Directive 2011/93/EU on the fight against sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography have been adopted by the 27 European Union (EU) Member States bound by the Directive.

How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style (2015)

Livingstone, Sonia, Mascheroni, Giovanna, Dreier, Michael, Chaudron, Stephane, Lagae, Kaat

The report compares strategies of parental mediation on the internet according to levels of parental education and household income. The aim was to inform policy-makers and practitioners on how to approach parental guidance and awareness raising.

The impact of internet and new media on the occurrence of violence against children in Europe and Cyprus (2015)

Rosella Sala

This document demonstrate that countries lack of expertise on child sexual exploitation and struggle combating this issue by their own. It suggests to establish an international legal framework to prosecute offenders and protect children.

Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

Petra Jeney

The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Policy Influences and Country Clusters: A Comparative Analysis of Internet Safety Policy Implementation (2014)

B. O'Neill

The report examines the policy context of internet safety and looks at how countries within each cluster approach implementation.

Final recommendations for policy (2014)

O’Neill, B., Staksrud, E

Combining all the EU Kids Online policy guidance into one resource, this report provides more than 30 proposed actions for making the Internet safer for children.

Children's Use of Online Technologies in Europe (2014)

K. Ólafsson, S. Livingstone, L. Haddon

This report reviews recent research on children’s use of internet and mobile technologies identified by the EU Kids Online network.

Mapping Safer Internet Policies in the Member States (2014)

P. Baudouin, B. Mahieu, T. Dor, B. Good, J. Milayi, S. Nakajima

The purpose of the study was to set up a framework for analysing Better Internet for Children public policies covering EU Member States, and Norway and Iceland.

Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online: Estonia (2014)

European Commission

Report on Estonia's commitment to stop Child Sexual Abuse Online

Country classification: opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation (2013)

Helsper, E.J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B., and de Haan, J.

This report explores the range and type of online opportunities and risks experienced by children in each country. The ways in which parents mediate or regulate their children’s internet use is also examined.

Zero to Eight - Young Children and Their Internet Use (2013)

Holloway, D., Green, L., and Livingstone, S. with members of the EU Kids Online network,

This report reviews a number of other studies and provides recommendations as to how younger children can be protected from online risks.

Overview and Analysis of 1:1 Learning Initiatives in Europe (2013)

Intel

Intel 's report on the status of 1:1 Learning Initiative in Europe

Country Classification: Opportunities, Risks, Harm and Parental Mediation (2013)

Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Sagvari, B. and De Haan, J. with members of the EU Kids Online network

With data from 25 of the European countries surveyed in EU Kids Online, the report examines the range and type of online opportunities, risks and harm which children from each country experience, as well as looking at ways in which parents control or mediate their children’s Internet use.

Risks and safety on the internet: Comparing Brazilian and European children (2013)

Barbosa, A., O’Neill, B., Ponte, C., Simões, J.A., Jereissati, T.,

This study compares the results of the survey of Brazilian children and their parents/guardians, carried out by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee. Using the same methodology as the EU Kids Online research, the results from Brazil are compared with those from Europe.

In their own words: what bothers children online? (2013)

Livingstone S., Kirwil, L., Ponte C. and Staksrud E., with the EU Kids Online network

The results of a survey of nearly 10,000 children in 25 countries across Europe, this report details what children say upsets them and their friends online

Excessive Internet Use by European Children (2012)

D. Smahel, E. Helsper, L. Green, V. Kalmus, L. Blinka, K. Ólafsson

This report presents new findings and further analysis of the EU Kids Online 25-country survey regarding excessive use of the internet by children.

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Haddon, L., Livingstone, S., EU Kids Online Network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports.

EU Kids Online: Excessive Internet Use among European Children (2012)

Smahel, D, Helsper, E, Green, L, Kalmus, V, Blinka, L, Ólafsson, K,

This report uses the data from the EU Kids Online study to examine excessive use of the Internet by children in the 25 participating countries.

ECPAT Global Monitoring Report: Estonia (2012)

ECPAT

Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children in Estonia

EU Kids Online: National perspectives (2012)

Leslie Haddon, Sonia Livingstone and the EU Kids Online network

This report summarizes the Internet experiences of children in the 33 participating EU Kids Online countries and includes eight countries which have not appeared in previous reports

The Protection of Children Online (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children. Full Findings (2011)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., Ólafsson, K

Building on the original study, EU Kids Online I, this second piece of research includes the findings from research which took place in 25 countries. Children in the 9 – 16 age group were surveyed on their experiences of online use, risk and safety

Online Behavior Related to Child Sexual Abuse (2011)

M. Ainsaar, L. Lööf

This report provides a review of studies, with a specific focus on sexually abusive online experiences and offline sexual abuse that have started with an online contact or where the contacts between the perpetrator and the young person have relied heavily on information and communication technologies.

Education on Online Safety in Schools in Europe (2009)

Eurydice

The study covers 30 European countries and provides information on whether online safety is taught and how it is taught in schools within the participating countries.

Country Report on ICT in Education: Estonia (2009)

Euorpean SchoolNet

Report on the imlementation of ICT into the Estonian Education System

EU Kids Online: Final report (2009)

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L.

One of the foremost pieces of research into the online habits of children in the European Union is the EU Kids Online research, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Plus Programme between 2006 and 2009.

Combating Child Sex Tourism: Question and Answers (2008)

ECPAT

This is a general information document on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. It also gives an overview of the global situation.

Towards a safer use of the Internet for children in the EU - a parents' perspective (2008)

Eurobarometer

The study covers 27 EU Member States and provides parental responses to a range of questions relating to Internet safety and their perception of risk.

Safer Internet for Children and Adolescents in the new Member States. Full Report (2004)

Eurobarometer

This report covers the ten accession countries of the time: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

Estonia has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (August 2004).

The age of majority in Estonia is eighteen years of age and the age of consent is fourteen, and the legal age of consent for marriage is eighteen.

  • §141, Penal Code. Rape. Defines the offense of rape as sexual intercourse with a person against their will by using force or by taking advantage of a situation in which the victim is not capable a resisting or comprehending. The penalty for this offense is one to five years’ imprisonment. An aggravated sentence of six to fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply if the victim is under the age of fourteen; the offense was committed jointly by more than one person; serious damage is caused to the health of the victim; the victim dies as a result of the crime or attempts suicide or a recidivist previously convicted for an offense under this Division (Offenses against Sexual Self-determination) committed the offense.
  • §142, Penal Code. Satisfaction of Sexual Desire by Violence. This section states that it is an offense to involve a person against their will in the satisfaction of sexual desire by means other than sexual intercourse by using force or by taking advantage of a situation in which the victim is not capable a resisting or comprehending. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for up to three years. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen, or the offense has been committed by a person previously convicted for a crime under this Division (Offenses against Sexual Self-determination), an increased penalty of up to five years’ imprisonment will apply.
  • §143, Penal Code. Compelling Person to Engage in Sexual Intercourse. States that anyone who has sexual intercourse with a person against their will by taking advantage of the victim’s dependency, without the use of force or outside a situation where the victim was not able to resist or fully comprehend the situation, is guilty of an offense liable to imprisonment for up to three years. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen an aggravated penalty of up to five years’ imprisonment will apply.
  • §143.1, Penal Code. Compelling Person to Satisfy Sexual Desire. States that anyone who involves a person in satisfaction of sexual desire by means other than intercourse against their will by taking advantage of the victim’s dependency, without the use of force or outside a situation where the victim was not able to resist or fully comprehend the situation, is guilty of an offense. The offender is liable to imprisonment for up to two years. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen or the offender has previously been convicted for a crime under this Division (Offenses against Sexual Self-determination), an aggravated penalty of up to five years’ imprisonment will apply.
  • §145, Penal Code. Sexual Intercourse with a Child. States that any adult who engages in sexual intercourse with a child under the age of fourteen is liable to up to five years’ imprisonment.
  • §145, Penal Code. Sexual intercourse with a child. This crime is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
  • §146, Penal Code. Satisfaction of sexual desire with a child. Defines the offense as satisfying one’s sexual desire with a child by any means other than sexual intercourse. The penalty is five years’ imprisonment.
  • §173, Penal Code. Sale or purchase of a child. The penalty for this offense is one to five years’ imprisonment. If the offense is committed by a ‘legal person’ the penalty is a fine.
  • §175, Penal Code. Prostitution of a minor. Defines the offense as inducing or influencing a minor under the age of eighteen to engage in prostitution. The offense is punishable by a fine or a prison term of up to five years.
  • §176, Penal Code. Aiding prostitution involving minors. Defines the offense as aiding prostitution of a minor in any way (e.g. by providing premises) and states that the penalty is a fine or a prison term of up to five years. If the offense is committed by a ‘legal person’ the penalty is a fine. If the offense is committed by a group or criminal organization If the offender has previous been found guilty of committing this offense the penalty increases to a sentence of three to fifteen years’ imprisonment.
  • §177, Penal Code. Use of minors in pornographic works. Defines the offense as using a minor under the age of eighteen as a model or actor in a pornographic work or images and states that the penalty is a fine or a prison term of up to five years. If the offense is committed by a ‘legal person’ the penalty is a fine.
  • §178, Penal Code. Manufacturing or distributing child pornography. Defines the offense as manufacturing pornographic works depicting a minor under the age of eighteen or passing them to another person and states that the penalty is a fine or up to three years’ imprisonment. If the offense is committed by a ‘legal person’ the penalty is a fine.
  • §179, Penal Code. Sexual enticement of children. Defines the offense as providing pornographic material to a child under the age of fourteen, engaging in sexual intercourse with the child or enticing them in any way. The penalty is a fine or up to one year’s imprisonment. If the offense is committed by a ‘legal person’ the penalty is a fine. In order to prevent human and child trafficking by decreasing the demand, the new Advertising Act entered into force in 2008 prohibiting the advertising of services offered for the satisfaction of sexual desire, including publicizing prostitution or services contributing to mediation of prostitution as well as the advertising of works containing pornography or promoting violence or cruelty.
  • Act to Regulate Dissemination of Works which Contain Pornography or Promote Violence or Cruelty 1997. The act defines pornography as a manner of representation in which sexual acts are brought to the foreground in a vulgar and intrusive manner and other human relations are disregarded or relegated to the background. Furthermore, it prescribes measures to protect children from exposure to pornography. Pursuant to this Act, transmission of television or radio broadcasts containing pornography has been prohibited while advertising of works containing pornography or promoting violence or cruelty is only permitted within specialized places of business which should not be located in the proximity of schools or nursery schools.
  • Article 33, Child Protection Act. The article states that the child shall be protected from all forms of sexual exploitation, and an adult is prohibited from inducing a child to engage in sexual activity and exploitatively use children in prostitution or for pornographic purposes.
  • Article 50, Child Protection Act. The act prohibits the production or distribution of obscene (pornographic) materials, printed matter and films for or among children, as well as the use of children in the production and distribution of obscene materials.

2009 - In May 2009 the Assistant Director of the FBI’s Cyber Division, announced at a conference held in Tallinn, that the FBI plans to locate a cyber expert full-time in Estonia in order to continue to work closely with the Estonian authorities.

The same year, the Estonian Government launched child helpline (Vijheliin) service using the nationwide free of charge round the clock operational helpline number 116 111. The objective of the service is to enable everybody to report about a child in need, and to offer counselling for children and parents. Since 2010, the helpline has extended its scope to provide counseling, information and assistance on sexual exploitation of children on the Internet. The service is provided in accordance with the Republic of Estonia Child Protection Act § 59, which states that every person is required to immediately notify the social services departments, police or some other body providing assistance to child who is in need of protection or assistance.

2010 - The Estonian Government adopted the Development Plan Against Violence 2010- 2014, which focuses on four areas: violence against children; violence committed by minors; domestic violence and violence against women; and, trafficking in human beings. The plan worked on spreading awareness on trafficking of human beings to the general public, especially young people and girls, provided training to the child protection officials focusing on identification of unaccompanied and trafficked children, and with the assistance from Estonian Safer Internet Center implemented programs that spread awareness about the dangers of the Internet.

The same year, the Ministry of Interior introduced Main Guidelines of Estonia’s Security Policy until 2015, which provide long-term objectives of the security policy, one of which is to improve the capacity for combating criminal offences committed through ICT. To implement these guidelines, the government provided training to officers in combating the sexual abuse of children on the Internet and child pornography. The subsequent Guidelines for Development of Criminal Policy until 2018 includes combating cyber crimes as one of its main objectives. The guidelines make special focus on fighting against sexual abuse of minors, spread awareness of vulnerable children in cooperation with the private sector, and establishment of a sufficient number of IT specialists in law enforcement agencies.

2011 - The Estonian Union for Child Welfare established a Vihjeliin as a service to prevent the distribution of materials that violate the rights, dignity and physical inviolability of children on the internet. It works closely with law enforcement authorities, INSAFE and INHOPE to eliminate material online depicting illegal content, particularly presenting the sexual abuse or exploitation of minors and child trafficking. In addition, the hotline offers services related to community outreach and internet safety awareness, research/ policy development and advocate/law enforcement training. Since its establishment, the Vihjeliin has received 3,333 reports, 335 of which contained information about CSAM.

Furthermore, Estonia established an online police constable to receive reports, collect facts and forward relevant information to start up investigations, as well as to increase the feeling of security and provide protection to children and adolescents on the Internet. The constable has received several reports regarding minors, with the most severe cases concerning child pornography and sexual exploitation of adolescents. As of 2014, there are three web-constables working in the Police and Border Guard Board.

2012 - Estonia joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online along with 54 countries around the world. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.

The University of Tartu participated in ROBERT (“Risktaking Online Behaviour Empowerment through Research and Training”), which was funded the European Commission’s Safer Internet Program and coordinated by the EGCC. The two-year project intended to make online interaction safe for children and young people through learning from experiences of online abuse and factors that make individuals vulnerable. The research project focused on increasing the understanding of the way online contacts may develop into ones that are sexually abusive.

2015 - Estonian Police and Border Guard Board corporated in a three year project FIIP (Fighting International Internet Phedophilia) with UK, Netherland and Spain, which was supported by the European Commission. The project aimed to develop a range of innovative tools that European law enforcement agencies can use to assist with the risk assessment and prioritisation of cases, deploy the tools that help safeguard children and identify offenders, and improve collaboration between partners, including sharing best practice and establishing shared working practices to protect children across the world.