Costa Rica

Population

4,814,144

Population 0‑14

23.1%

Internet Users

88.0%

Facebook Users

2,800,000

Mobile Subscribers

7,500,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1988 - The Ministry of Public Education partnered with the Omar Dengo Foundation (FOD) in order to introduce, implement and evaluate technology use in education.Their National Program of Educational Informatics (NPEI) was initially solely aimed at elementary public schools, but the NPEI now includes all grades from kindergarten through to ninth grade, catering for pupils aged between five and fifteen. The program either enables students to use a computer for 80 minutes each week in an informatics laboratory or supplies a computer to every classroom to support the learning process. In addition, a teacher training module is designed to inspire educators to use digital technologies in the classroom across a range of subjects.

2003 - The TecnoBus Model (MTB) was launched in Costa Rica in 2003, with the aim of taking the latest technologies to disadvantaged communities to bridge the digital divide. The bus carried wireless, microwave and satellite connectivity to around 34 communities in San Jose, providing training in how to use software and the technology on board. Older children were prioritized initially, with parents and community leaders targeted and encouraged to continue to seek to access ICT one the MTB had moved on. A number of NGOs and companies partnered to deliver hardware, connectivity and training.

Since 2010, specifically developed teaching tutorials have ensured the same training standards and student outcomes across all levels in all participating schools. In the MoE’s Education for All Strategic Plan 2003-2015, the use of technology in education is one of the areas the Ministry plans to improve during the program period. The objective is to promote the use of technology in the classroom in order to strengthen the teaching and learning process, and ensure the bridging of the digital divide.

2012 - Costa Rica received a deployment of 1,500 laptops as a result of a partnership between the Quirós Tanzi Foundation, a nonprofit organization which works to foster digital and social inclusion in the country’s public school system and the Ministry of Public Education. The Conectándonos Project aims to deliver an XO laptop from One Laptop Per Child to all students and an Intel Classmate PC to teachers, who will also receive training, in its first phase. In a 2012 interview with the Executive Director of Fundación QuirósTanzi, Daniel Castro he reported that feedback from schools was positive, with parents also wanting to learn how to use their children’s laptops.

Teachers, students, administrators and the general educational community are encouraged to use ICT by the Ministry of Public Education’s educational portal, [email protected]; a platform designed to enable the community to share ideas and experiences. Users can access teaching material and guidelines, as well as interact with other users in the forum or through the use of a blog.

2013 - In September, at the BYND 2015 Global Youth Summit, the Secretary-General of the ITU, Dr Hamadoun Touré, announced the launch of a new TecnoBus project. The Paniamor Foundation, the National Bank and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Telecommunication have partnered to deliver the project, which will again see a highly-equipped bus travel to communities which do not have Internet access.

2014 - The Department of Research, Development and Implementation of Management Technology Resources of the Ministry of Public Education created the project Aulas en Red. Its aim is to promote collaborative learning between schools as they use technological tools.

2015 - The project National Program of Educational Informatics (PRONIE) of the Omar Dengo Foundation received the 2015 UNESCO-King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education. This program contributes to improving the quality and equity of learning opportunities within the public education system through the use of digital technologies. It gives priority to marginalized children and youth from rural and marginal urban areas.

Defense for Children International Costa Rica

The Costa Rican chapter of this organization is currently operating an Internet safety campaign, with the emphasis on protecting children from sexual violence, particularly through pornography. The organization has also published a range of academic works relating to sexual exploitation of and sexual violence against children.

Defense for Children International Costa Rica (DNI)

The Costa Rican chapter of this organization is currently operating an Internet safety campaign, with the emphasis on protecting children from sexual violence, particularly through pornography. The organization has also published a range of academic works relating to sexual exploitation of and sexual violence against children.

Educational Community of Central America and Dominican Republic

Is a virtual meeting place for the teaching community, this educational portal links eight countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, the Dominican Republic and their respective educational systems. It provides up-to-date information, online courses, virtual communities, digital resources, newsletters, digital libraries and other educational materials.

Educational Community of Central America and Dominican Republic (CEDUCAR)

A virtual meeting place for the teaching community, this educational portal links eight Latin American countries and their respective educational systems. It provides up-to-date information, online courses, virtual communities, digital resources, newsletters, digital libraries and other educational materials.

[email protected]

The Ministry of Public Education set up this educational portal to encourage interaction among teachers and students alike. Teaching resources and guidelines are available for download, and a forum enables users to interact and share ideas.

Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)

A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Latin American Network of Educational Portals

Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministers of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, RELPE is a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.

Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)

Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.

Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)

This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.

Ministry of Public Education

strives to enable all Costa Ricans access to quality education, focusing on the integral development of individuals. Their Resource Management for Technologies in Education department is responsible for all aspects of ICT use in the classroom. They establish policies, guidelines and procedures designed to facilitate the integration of ICTs into everyday teaching and learning processes.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.

Paniamor Foundation

works with and for children throughout Costa Rica and has undertaken various projects which teach children computer skills, including that of the TecnoBus; the TechnoClub (with support from Microsoft) and a Computer Clubhouse (with Intel).

The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC

It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.

The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC

It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.

Youth Speak Out International

It is an organization that promotes media literacy as a key means of countering media stereotyping. This approach encourages openness with objectivity, fosters tolerance, understanding and respect in today’s society.

Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)

Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank

This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.

Releasing children’s potential and minimizing risks - ICTs, the Internet and Violence against Children (2014)

Office of the UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children

This report explains the need of children and youth to have access to ICTs, but most important the supervision they must have in order to be protected from the dangers of the Internet.

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Costa Rica (2014)

Bureau of International Labor Affairs

This report presents the worst forms of child labor and the efforts by the government of Costa Rica to end them during 2014.

Costa Rica: Children’s Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review (2014)

Child Rights International Network

This is a compilation of information from different reports submitted to the second Universal Periodic Review.

The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)

ECPAT International

This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena

ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.

Digital technologies meet the challenges of inclusive education in Latin America: some examples of good practices (2012)

NU. CEPAL, European Commission

The publication includes a series of studies on policies and programs to integrate digital technologies into education in various Latin American countries. The document also presents eight cases of good practices in ICTs that can be used in the Latin American school system to contribute to inclusion and reduce social inequalities.

Assessing Computer Education in Costa Rica: Results of a Supply and Demand Study of ICT Human Resources. (2012)

Francisco J. Mata, Rosaura Matarrita, Claudio Pinto

This paper presents the results of a study conducted between 2007 and 2009 to understand the ICT human resource situation and improve Costa Rica’s capacity in computer education. It reveals the implications for the educational system, and gives policy recommendations in order to support the country’s global ICT competitiveness.

Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)

Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei

This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)

Inter American Children’s Instirute

This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.

Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)

Inter-American Development Bank

This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.

Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)

Inter-American Development Bank

This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.

Missing Children in Central America: Research of Practices and legislation on Prevention and Recovery (2011)

UNICEF and the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

This report is about the situation of Central America in 2011 on the matter of trafficking and sexual exploitation. It pays close attention to legislation, some cases and the countries’ actions on this issue.

Child Online Protection - Statistical Framework and Indicators (2010)

Sheridan Roberts

This report considers the measurement aspects of child online protection with a particular emphasis on measures that are suitable for international comparison.

Enabling Digital Literacy (2010)

Marianne Georgsen, Thomas Ryberg

This paper suggests a pedagogical approaches that can enable digital and studies the case of Costa

Costa rica (2010)

Protectionproject.org

This report presents data on the problem of trafficking in people in Costa Rica. It highlights the different factors that contribute to it, different forms, government, non-government and international responses and some of the multilateral initiatives to address this issue.

The protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation in tourism and the role of Tourism Professionals, NGO and Law Enforcement (2009)

ECPAT

This is a report on the expert meeting on March 2009 with participants with a law enforcement background, NGO background and tourism business background to discussed what is needed to make a multi stakeholder approach work with the aim to improve the protection of children and the prosecution of child sex exploiters.

Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)

Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz

This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.

El combate contra la pornografía infantil en Internet: el caso de Costa Rica. (2006)

Marie-Laure Lemineur Renata

This book is a study on the problem of child pornography in Costa Rica. It presents the loopholes in the Costarican laws regarding this matter by providing international successful models aimed to combat it

Rights of the Child - Report submitted by Mr. Juan Miguel Petit, Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (2004)

Juan Miguel Petit

This is a report from the commission on human rights of the United Nations on child pornography on internet. It defines child pornography and recommend the ratification of the optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and its definition of child pornography. I also brings into attention the important role of credit card companies in this issue.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual activity in Costa Rica is fifteen (Article 159 Penal Code). The Law against the Sexual Exploitation of Minors, 1999, amended the existing Penal Code to include sexual crimes specifically targeting minors.

A draft ‘law for the protection of the rights of children and adolescents from violence and crime in the area of ICT’, amending the existing Penal Code (Ley especial para la protección de los derechos de la niñez y adolescencia frente a la violencia y el delito en el ámbito de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y reformas al Código Penal, Expediente N. º 18.230) has been submitted.21 The proposed amendments to the Penal Code were passed into law in December 2013 (Law No. 9177 – see Penal Code below). The other Articles of the draft law are currently (as at Spring 2014) still under review. Please see below for a selection of the provisions included:

  • Article 3, Draft Law No 18.230. Contacting Minors Through Information and Communication Technologies for Sexual Purposes. States that anyone who uses ICT to contact a minor for the purposes of committing any of the offenses described in the section on sexual crimes in the Penal Code, or to obtain photos or videos of the minor in the nude or engaged in sexually explicit activity, will be liable to two to four years’ imprisonment. Where contact is made through coercion, intimidation, threat, deception or seduction, an increased sentence of between three to five years’ imprisonment will apply. If, for the purpose of committing the crime, the offender posed as a minor to win the victim’s trust, the penalty increases to between four to six years’ imprisonment.
  • Article 4, Draft Law No 18.230. Virtual Pornography. This Article imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between six months and two years for anyone who manufactures, produces, reproduces, sells, disseminates or displays pornographic material utilizing the altered image, cartoon drawing, other visual representation or the voice of a minor engaged in sexual activities or displaying their genitals.
  • Article 5, Draft Law No 18.230. Dissemination of Cartoons and Drawings of Sexual Activities Involving Minors. States that it is a criminal offense to distribute, display or market to a minor any cartoons or drawings which show the characters engaged in sexually explicit behavior or in a state of nudity. This renders the offender liable to imprisonment for between six months and two years.
  • Article 6, Draft Law No 18.230. Advertising Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents with Travel and Tourism. This Article states that anyone who promotes or carries out programs, campaigns or advertisements through any information and communication technology to promote the country at national or international level as an accessible destination for the commercial sexual exploitation of children will be liable to imprisonment for between two and three years.
  • Article 7, Draft Law No 18.230. Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents Associated with Travel and Tourism. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between three and six years for anyone who organizes, directs, manages or provides through any means of electronic communication the domestic or international travel to Costa Rica for the purpose of any type of real or simulated sexual acts with minors or adolescents.
  • Article 8, Draft Law No 18.230. Cyberbullying Among Minors. States that any minor who threatens, assaults, harasses or insults another minor via any electronic means will be punished with the penalties provided in the Penal Law on Juvenile Justice and any other applicable educational law. If the offender creates a specific site or posts made through ICT, intended to encourage others to engage in a course of cyberbullying, a probation sentence will be imposed.
  • Article 9, Draft Law No 18.230. Incitement of Minors and Adolescents to Games or Activities Detrimental to Life, Physical or Psychological Integrity. This Article states that it is an offense to incite a minor, via electronic means, to participate in any games, violent activities or sexual abuse, endangering life, or physical or psychological integrity. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between six months and one year, or a fine of up to sixty days’ wages.
  • Article 10, Draft Law No 18.230. Manufacture, Production or Reproduction of Material with Scenes of Torture and Death Using Minors. States that anyone who manufactures, produces, reproduces or finances the production, by any technological means, of material containing scenes of torture or death involving minors, real or simulated, will be liable to imprisonment for six to ten years, without prejudice to the penalties prescribed for the sexual crimes committed. Where the minor is under the age of twelve, an increased penalty of eight to fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply.
  • Article 11, Draft Law No 18.230. Possession of Material with Scenes of Torture and Death Using Minors. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between one and three years for anyone who possesses any as material described in Article 10. The same penalty will apply to anyone who possesses such material in an account with a web hosting service, as well as any individual who offers the web hosting service and knows about the nature of the files stored.
  • Article 12, Draft Law No 18.230. Dissemination of Material with Scenes of Torture and Death to Minors. States that anyone who sells material as defined in Article 10 to any minor will be liable to imprisonment for between three and six years. Where the victim is under the age of twelve, an aggravated prison sentence of between four and eight years will apply.
  • Article 13, Draft Law No 18.230. Dissemination or Material with Scenes of Torture and Death Using Minors. This Article states that anyone who displays, disseminates, distributes or trades by any means any material as defined in Article 10 will be liable to between four and eight years’ imprisonment. The same penalty will apply to anyone who inputs any such material into databases, with or without profit.
  • Article 14, Draft Law No. 18.230. Cyberbullying of Minors. States that anyone who stalks, follows, or spies on a minor through any electronic means, infringing their right to privacy, will be liable to imprisonment for between six months and two years.
  • Article 15, Draft Law No. 18.230. Impersonation. This Article states that it is an offense to use the identity of a minor or adolescent to cause injury of a physical, moral or legal nature to the impersonated minor through any ICT-related means. The penalty for this offense is between one and two years’ imprisonment or a fine of up to 60 days’ wages. Where the victim is under the age of twelve the penalty will be increased to between one and three years’ imprisonment, or a fine of up to 200 days’ wages.
  • Article 16, Draft Law No. 18.230, Creation of databases containing sensitive information of children or adolescents. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment of one to three years when it reveals their social or ethnic origin, belief or religious views , or aspects of their health or sexual orientation.
  • Article 156, Penal Code. Rape. This article defines the offense of rape, which is described as sexual intercourse, whether vaginal, anal or oral, with a person under the age of twelve years, or with a person who is incapable or unable to resist, or where the offender use physical violence or intimidation. Rape also includes the insertion of fingers or other objects into the vagina or anus. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between ten and sixteen years.
  • Article 157, Penal Code. States that the offender will be liable to an increased sentence of twelve to eighteen years’ imprisonment if the offender is a blood relative of the victim, or where the offense caused the death of the victim.
  • Article 159, Penal Code. Sexual Relationships with Minors. States that anyone who, taking advantage of the victim’s age, has anal, oral or vaginal intercourse with a minor over the age of twelve but under fifteen years of age, even with consent, is guilty of an offense and liable to imprisonment for a term of between two to six years. The same penalty is imposed on anyone who inserts fingers or other objects into the vagina or anus of the victim. Where the victim is over the age of twelve but under eighteen and the offender was in a position of authority over the victim, or a relative, an increased sentence of four to twelve years’ imprisonment will apply.
  • Article 160, Penal Code. Sexual Acts with Minors for Remuneration. Defines the offense of paying or promising to pay a minor for carrying out sexual or erotic acts, which is punishable by imprisonment for four to ten years if the victim is under the age of twelve, three to eight years if the victim is over twelve but under fifteen, and two to six years if the victim is over fifteen but under eighteen years of age.
  • Article 161, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Minors and Mentally Disabled. This article states that anyone who sexually abuses a minor or mentally disabled person, or coerces them to perform a sexual act on the offender themselves or another person, is liable to imprisonment for three to eight years, providing the crime does not constitute rape. An aggravated sentence of four to ten years’ imprisonment will apply where the victim is under the age of twelve; where the offender took advantage of the victim’s vulnerability or inability to resist; where the offender uses physical violence or intimidation; where the offender is an ascendant, descendant, brother by blood or marriage, step-parent, spouse or person who is bound in a similar relationship of cohabitation, guardian or responsible for the education, custody or care of the victim or where the offender was in a position of authority over the victim or his family.
  • Article 162, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of Adults. This article states that if the abuses described in the preceding article are committed against an adult person, the penalty is two to four years’ imprisonment. An increased penalty of three to six years’ imprisonment applies in the following cases: where the offender took advantage of the victim’s vulnerability or inability to resist; where the offender uses physical violence or intimidation; where the offender is an ascendant, descendant, brother by blood or marriage, step-parent, spouse or person who is bound in a similar relationship of cohabitation, guardian or responsible for the education, custody or care of the victim or where the offender was in a position of authority over the victim or his family.
  • Article 167, Penal Code. Corruption. States that anyone who promotes the corruption of minors or mentally disabled persons is liable to a term of imprisonment for three to eight years. The same penalty will be imposed on anyone who uses minors or mentally disabled persons for erotic, pornographic or obscene purposes in shows or exhibitions, whether public or private. For the purpose of this article, ‘corruption’ means to perform sexual or erotic acts with minors or mentally disabled persons, or to perform such acts with another person in their presence.
  • Article 168, Penal Code. Aggravated Corruption. This article constitutes that an aggravated penalty of four to ten years’ imprisonment applies in the following cases: where the victim is under twelve years of age; where the offense has been committed for financial gain; where the offense has been committed by means of deceit, violence, abuse of authority or any other means of intimidation or coercion; where the offender is an ascendant, descendant, brother by blood or marriage, step-parent, spouse or person who is bound in a similar relationship of cohabitation, guardian or responsible for the education, custody or care of the victim or where the offender was in a position of authority over the victim or his family.
  • Article 169, Penal Code. Procuration. Defines the offense of promoting the prostitution of persons or inducing them to engage or remain in prostitution. The crime is punishable by imprisonment for two to five years.
  • Article 170, Penal Code. Aggravated Procuration. This article states that a heavier penalty of four to ten years’ imprisonment applies where procuration was committed in one of the following circumstances: where the victim is under eighteen years of age; where the offense has been committed for financial gain; where the offense has been committed by means of deceit, violence, abuse of authority or any other means of intimidation or coercion; where the offender is an ascendant, descendant, brother by blood or marriage, step-parent, spouse or person who is bound in a similar relationship of cohabitation, guardian or responsible for the education, custody or care of the victim or where the offender was in a position of authority over the victim or his family.
  • Article 171, Penal Code. Pimping. States that anyone who forces a person into prostitution for their own personal financial gain, is liable to imprisonment for a term between two to eight years. An increased sentence of four to ten years’ imprisonment applies if the victim is under the age of twelve. Where the victim is aged between thirteen and seventeen, the offender is liable to imprisonment for three to nine years.
  • Article 172, Penal Code. Human Trafficking. Defines the offense of promoting, facilitating or encouraging the import or export of persons for the purpose of prostitution or sexual slavery. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for four to ten years.
  • Article 173, Penal Code. Manufacture or Production of Pornography. This Article states that it is illegal to manufacture or produce pornographic material using underage children or images of them. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for between four and eight years. The Article also states that anyone who trades, exports or imports such material for commercial purposes is liable to imprisonment for three to six years. The term child pornography explicitly includes any written, visual or audio representation produced by any means, including electronically, of a minor, his image or voice, altered or modified, engaged in explicit sexual activities, whether real or simulated, or any representation of the sexual parts of a minor for sexual purposes.
  • Article 173 bis, Penal Code. Possession of Pornography. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between one and four years for anyone who possesses child pornography.
  • Article 174, Penal Code. Dissemination of Pornography. States that anyone who sells, disseminates or exhibits pornographic material to minors or mentally disabled persons will be sentenced to a term of imprisonment for between three and seven years. A penalty of between four and eight years’ imprisonment will apply to anyone who displays, disseminates, distributes, finances, markets or possesses for the purpose of distribution by any means, pornographic material depicting minors.
  • Article 174 bis, Penal Code. Virtual Pornography and Pseudo Pornography. This Article states that anyone who possesses, produces, sells, distributes, displays or provides, by any means, pornographic material depicting adults impersonating a minor engaged in a sexual activity, or a cartoon drawing or representation of a minor engaged in such activities, commits an offense. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between six months and two years.

In 1930 was created The Patronato Nacional de la Infancia (PANI) this is considered the oldest ongoing public and social institution of the country. Its main objective is to ensure the protection, development, development of children and adolescents. On its website, people can submit complaints and read about services in psychological, social, legal and socio-economic to minors in situations of vulnerability or violation of rights.

In 2003, Microsoft provided support to the International [Centre for Missing and Exploited Children] (ICMEC), enabling it to conduct a series of training sessions for law enforcement agencies over five years (Global Training Conference in San Jose, Costa Rica), including in Costa Rica. The sessions explained how to conduct successful investigations of computer-facilitated crimes against children and by the end of the program, 3,219 officers from 113 countries had benefited from the training.

As far as legislation is concerned, Costa Rican law imposes higher sentences on those who abuse positions of trust or familial ties where children are concerned. Composite images and simulated images of children are specifically covered by legislation against child pornography, and the Internet and ICT are included as a means to commit crime.

The former President, of Costa Rica, Laura Chinchilla, is a strong supporter of online safety. She announced the launch of the International Telecommunications Union’s Child Online Protection (ITU COP) initiative as its patron. As part of their Digital Agenda 2011 - 2014, the Costa Rican government established a National Commission on Online Safety and launched a National Online Security Program, both of which benefitted from the ITU COP initiative in terms of coordination and resourcing. The latter is intended to improve the prevention of online safety incidents, emphasizing the development of social capabilities. Students, teachers and parents have received training in online safety and the responsible use of the Internet.