1992 - Prior to the earthquake, Enlaces (eLinks) (the Center for Education and Technology of the Ministry of Education) had provided over 10,000 schools with computer labs and 75% of schools were connected to the Internet. Enlaces aims to increase digital literacy among the schoolchildren of Chile and to improve educational standards through the use of computing and ICT.
2008 - VTR, Chile’s biggest telecommunications provider, has organized various activities with the aim of creating a secure digital environment for children. From educational seminars for professionals, through to awareness campaigns and conducting educational talks at schools. They work with a range of partners from various backgrounds, such as the Carabineros de Chile, the Investigations Police, Ministry of Interior, the Secretary of Telecommunications and Public Attorney’s Office.
More than 45,000 children have benefitted from talks held in educational institutions across the country, which aim to promote safe online behavior. The program included lectures to students, which delivered information about a serious issue in an entertaining and engaging way. In addition, VTR is a Latin American pioneer in implementing a system that blocks sites containing child sexual abuse content. Their network operates a platform which remotely blocks access to such pages, which are provided to VTR by the Internet Watch Foundation. VTR blocked more than 835,000 attempts to access websites displaying child pornography in its fixed and mobile network in 2013.
2010 - The February earthquake in Chile caused disruption to the country’s education system. The Ministry of Education quickly took steps to help affected schools, for example by making a range of textbooks available online through the Ministry’s website, so that they might be accessed by schools whose stocks of physical learning materials were lost in the damage. The Ministry also provided a large amount of online guidance to schools as to how they could help students deal with the psychological effects of the disaster, as well as practical advice on how schools could continue to access teaching materials and curriculum standards via the website.
2011 - A nationwide ICT skills assessment for second-year high school students was introduced in November. SIMCE TIC (Sistema Nacional de Medición de Competencias en Tecnologías de la Información – National Measurement System for Skills in ICT) measures twelve ICT skills grouped under three cognitive dimensions: information, communication, and ethics and social impact. The first test report, 2011 National Results SIMCE TIC showed that at national level, 3.35% of the 10,321 students who took the test attained the Advanced Level, 50% attained the Intermediate Level and 46% reached the Initial Achievement Level.
The Ministry of Education supports teachers by providing a well-stocked online resource with lesson plans, online and offline activities for the classroom, audio and video clips, animations, presentations, maps and plenty more on the website Curriculum en linea. Students have access to a similar platform called Yo Estudio (I Study) which contains educational material for all courses and subjects.
The Municipality of Atacama in collaboration with The Universidad de Chile have worked with OREAL/ UNESCO in a project that consists on helping indigenous communities to take their first step in the digital world. A series of workshops where they learned to opened e-mail accounts, social network profiles, and blogs, while also working to promote collaborative activities between the different groups necessary tools for the development of people and their communities.
2012 - The Ministry of Education, through Enlaces, held 32 seminars across the country, entitled “Family Living in the Digital Era”, aimed at parents and guardians. The seminars highlighted the Internet’s potential and its dangers, as well as providing conversation starters to enable parents to raise the issue with their children. The presentations were made by the Cyber Crime Investigation Unit, Fundación Queveo and Enlaces. To coincide with the seminars, the Ministry published a handbook “Ser Familia en la Era Digital” with recommendations for parents regarding online dangers and the merit of the Internet.
The initiative Todo Chile Comunicado is a project in partnership with mobile phone service operator Entel, Ericsson, Chilean government and Connect To Learn to bring internet access to schools in a rural community of the Biobio region. Made possible by government funds, Entel has provided equipment and connectivity to rural schools, which are up to 1,000km from the Chile’s capital.
Ericsson has joined with the Earth Institute at Columbia University and Millennium Promise to create the Connect to Learn initiative. It enables access for students and teachers to information and educational resources, and connecting schools to others around the world in order to foster collaborative learning, cross-cultural understanding, and global awareness. The initiative is mainly focused on countries in the sub-Saharan, however four schools in a rural part of Chile are to benefit from broadband Internet access which will be provided as part of a collaboration between Connect to Learn, Entel and the Chilean government.
2013 - The Ministry of Education updated the ICT Skills for Learning (HTPA) Matrix, which is a set of 20 skills from four pillars. These aim to provide students with the ability to solve problems of information, communication and knowledge, as well as legal social and ethical dilemmas in a digital environment. The four pillars are: Information, Communication and Collaboration, Technology, and Digital Living. The latter expects students to develop skills in ethics and self-care, which requires them to be able to distinguish opportunities and risks of modern technologies, and implement protection strategies. The matrix explicitly mentions the dangers of cyberbullying, grooming and online sexual abuse.
As part of ongoing efforts to bridge the digital divide, Microsoft, the The Ministry of Education and other government agencies have worked to promote a program which provides computers and other technology to students who have demonstrated a strong academic performance but for whom cost would be a barrier to their families purchasing computer equipment. The project, Yo ellijo Mi PC, In 2016 is expected to be delivered 30,000 new equipment to outstanding students.
Various organizations from across Latin America have joined forces to launch RedNATIC, the Network for the Right of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of new ICTs (Red por el derecho de los niños, niñas y adolescentes al uso seguro y responsable de las nuevas TIC). They are committed to promoting the rights of children and adolescents to a safe and responsible use of modern technologies, with a common framework approach based on the Rights of Children and shared values, principles and objectives. Their website features news and the resources from all member organizations. In 2014, RedNATIC’s goal was to collate a regional document about Children’s Rights online in order to influence and guide public policies makers in Latin America.
Children learn about ethics and safe use of new technologies as part of the ICT curriculum, with topics tailored to age group. Internet safety is also taught in the Design & Technology curriculum. It expects students to demonstrate the ability to use the Internet in a safe and responsible manner, to follow rules given by teachers and to respect copyrights.
2015 - The Ministry of Education, Enlaces, Educarchile and Fundación Chile, prepared a manual on the safe usage of internet for teachers. Uso Seguro de Internet para Docentes (Spanish) has the purpose of guide educators so they can advise and teach how to enjoy safely the Internet.
The Universidad Católica de Chile joined the initiative of EU Kids Online. The project involves the implementation of surveys that allow to understand the experiences of children and their parents online. Kids Online will generate information about children and adolescents’ opportunities and risks involved when they surf the internet and how they deal with these. Understanding such behaviors will permit to develop more effective policies that guarantee a safer digital environment.
Cyber Crime Investigation Unit (BRICIB)
formed in October 2000 and is responsible for investigating Internet-based crimes, such as fraud, child pornography and other online crime. A specialist team is dedicated solely to the investigation of child pornography offenses and also regularly undertakes community outreach work to raise awareness of the importance of Internet safety and other issues. In 2004, as part of the reforms to laws relating to offenses committed against children, law enforcement agencies were given additional surveillance powers, including the monitoring of telecommunications and computer networks to gather evidence.
It is a joint venture of The Ministry of Education in partnership with the Fundación Chile, this website is aimed at all members of the national educational community, as well as parents, researchers, and cultural organizations. Educarchile aims to contribute to improving the quality of education at all levels, increasing training opportunities and promoting learning for life. The website also provides news, information, resources and services for teachers, parents and students.
El Día de Internet en Chile
It celebrates World Information Society Day, or Internet Day as it is known locally, annually on May 17th. This website provides information on the next upcoming event as well as providing round-ups of past celebrations. In addition, the site has information about cyberbullying.
It is responsible for The Ministry of Education’s Internet safety website which contains information for both parents and children. The children’s section covers topics such as safe surfing, safe behavior in chat rooms and cyberbullying and uses age-appropriate language and imagery to convey its message. The parental section focuses on prevention through the use of filtering and blocking technology and provides advice for parents on the rules they should be setting for their children.
the I See Foundation is a private, non-profit organization whose mission is to raise and promote digital awareness in the Chilean society, encouraging critical thinking and the safe and responsible use of modern technologies.
Instituto Interamericano del Niño, la Niña y Adolescente (INN)
A specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on children and adolescents policy that provides guidance to the different states on how they must assume protection.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Latin American Network of Educational Portals (La Red Latinoamericana de Portales Educativos – RELPE)
Formed in 2004 by an agreement of the Ministries of Education from sixteen Latin American countries, a network of educational portals, allowing the collaboration and sharing of educational content between the member countries. It also provides for the construction of standards and methodologies of processes to position the network as a benchmark in the region and the world on collaborative management of educational content.
Latin American Network of ICT and Education (Red Iberoamericana de TIC y Educación – RIATE)
This organization promotes bilateral or multilateral cooperation for development through the exchange of information, initiatives and projects that promote the integration of ICT in education in 21 countries.
Founded in 1996, works on matters related to the Rights of the Child and for the promotion of the children’s rights. Under the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, its efforts are focus on prevention and protection of children. It organizes local campaigns, seminars and training courses to people who work in education and health, as well as to NGOs and institutions that work with children.
The Interactive Generations Forum
A nonprofit organization which mission is to promote the use of technology to improve people’s lives. It was founded in 2008 by Telefónica, the University of Navarra and the Inter-American Organization (OUI). The Forum seeks to understand the impact of technology on children aged between 6 - 18 in Latin America, to provide educational resources for that age group and to educate through its own programs.
The Ministry of Education
It’s mission is to ensure an equitable and high quality education system that contributes to the integral training of the Chilean nation and the country’s socio-economic development.
The Network for the Rights of Children and Adolescents to the Safe and Responsible Use of New ICTs - RedNATIC
It comprises a joint group of organizations from across Latin America. Its member organizations assume as shared the principles of the statements contained in the Theoretical Framework for the rights of children and teens to a Safe and Responsible Use of ICT.
Yo elijo Mi PC
It is a government-run initiative which provides computers and other technology to students who have demonstrated a strong academic performance but for whom cost would be a barrier to their families purchasing computer equipment. The project also provides some basic safety information for recipients of the equipment.
Chile - Approach to Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Chile and the Actions Taken by the StateAndres Musalem Leon de la Barra
This is a report on the public policies towards protecting children in Chile.
ChileBureau of International Labor Affairs
This report presents the most significant advancements of the government of Chile in its effort to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
Cyberwellness Profile republic of Chile (2015)ITU
This is a report on the overall internet situation in Chile
Protecting Children from Cybercrime (2015)Simone dos Santos Lemos Fernandes, Legal Consultant, Global Forum on Law Justice and Development (GFLJD), Legal Vice Presidency, World Bank
This report studies different Latin American countries’ legislation on the prevention and combat of violence against children on the internet. It also identifies gaps and good practices on the protection of children from cybercrime.
List of Issues in Relation to the combined fourth and fifth period report of Chile (2015)Committee on the Rights of the Child
This periodic report gives an update on the different problems affection the protection of children in Chile
The commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Latin America (2014)ECPAT International
This report studies the different forms of sexual exploitation of children inLatin America. Furthermore, it highlights the new emerging trends and how Latin america is addressing this phenomena
Chile - 2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2014)United States Department of Labor
This report presents the findings of 2014 worst forms of child labor in Chile
ICT IN EDUCATION IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN A regional analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness (2012)UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO Institute for Statistics, based on survey responses from 38 countries reveals the extent to which factors such as education policy, teacher training, and infrastructure drive or hamper the integration of ICTs in schools.
Digital technologies meet the challenges of inclusive education in Latin America: some examples of good practices (2012)NU. CEPAL, European Commission
The publication includes a series of studies on policies and programs to integrate digital technologies into education in various Latin American countries. The document also presents eight cases of good practices in ICTs that can be used in the Latin American school system to contribute to inclusion and reduce social inequalities.
Explotación Sexual Comercial de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes en el Ámbito del Turismo y Viajes: Claves Para Comprender el Fenómeno en Chile (2012)Iria Retuerto Mendaña, Denisse Araya Castelli, Giulia Tarducci
This research explores the incidences of child sexual exploitation in different touristic areas of Chile.
Manifestaciones Locales de la Explotacion Sexual Comercial de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes en Chile. Dinámicas, Espacios y Género. (2012)Denisse Araya Castelli, Iria Retuerto Mendaña
This research about child sexual exploitation was made with the aim to create knowledge that would generate more effective actions to combat it.
Children’s use of mobile phones – An international comparison 2012 (2012)GSMA
This report surveyed 4,500 children to provide a detailed picture of children’s mobile phone usage across five different countries
ICT in Primary Education (2012)Ivan Kalaš, Haif E. Bannayan, Leslie Conery, Ernesto Lava, Diana Laurillard, Cher Ping Lim, Sarietjie Musgrave, Alexei Semenov, Márta Turcsányi-Szabó
Status of implementation of ICT in primary schools in Slovakia, Jordan, United States, Chile, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, South Africa, Russia, and Hugnary.
Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)Kristina Irion
The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.
Computers in Schools: Why governments Should do their Homework (2011)Inter-American Development Bank
This chapter is a comparison of the Latin American governments include ICT in their educational programs.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)Inter American Children’s Instirute
This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.
Informe de investigación: “Estudio de las Manifestaciones Locales de Explotacion Sexual Comercial de Niños y Adolescentes, Incluyendo la Especificidad de Victimas Jovenes Hombres y los Modelos de Atencion a Victimas” (2011)ECPAT
Study made by ECPAT collaboration with the NGOs Raices and Paicabi on sexual child exploitation with emphasis on males.
Advocacy for sustainable public computer access programs: using evidence of library impact on users (2010)Pilar Pacheco, Kristine Paberza
This paper discusses the ways public libraries and programs that support them use evidence of their impact to prove to stakeholders that they are meeting the users’ needs. I
ICT in Education Policy and Practice in Chile: Does it Correlate? (2010)J. Enrique Hinostroza and Mario Brun
This paper studies the presence of ICT in School and analyses its effects
Country Assessment on VAW - Chile (2009)Soledad Larrain, Lorena Valdevenito and Luz Rioseco
This report presents the different manifestations of violence against women in Chile as part of a study in 10 different countries. Its purpose is to be able to address these issues more effectively
Los desafíos de las TIC para el cambio educativo (2009)Roberto Carneiro, Juan Carlos Toscano and Tamara Díaz
This is a collective Inter-American educational program which goals are projected until the year 2021. It analyses the challenges of the new era of education and the importance of incorporating ICT on it.
ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned (2008)Jaime Sanchez and Alvaro Salinas
This paper evaluates the program Enlaces, which aims was to provide basic infrastructure tools,, connectivity, ICTs and teacher training to overcome inequity.
Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 12, Paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2008)Committee on the Rights of the Child
This is a report submitted by the government of Chile on their work done after Chile’s adoption of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
ICT as part of Chile’s Strategy for Development: Present Issues and Challenges (2005)Carlos Alvarez V.
This paper explores the Chilean experience in implementing the Digital Agenda
ICT in Chilean Schools: Students’ and Teachers’ Access to and Use of ICT (2005)J. Enrique Hinostroza, Christian Labbe and Magdalena Claro
The result of a survey on the ICT infrastructure and its use in Schools by the Centre for Technology and Education of the Ministry of Education.
Chile – Incidence and Nature of Child Labor (2004)United States Department of Labor
This is a report on the child labor findings in Chile during 2004. It talks about incidence, nature, laws, enforcements, policies and programs by the government to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.
Achievements during the 90’s of Chile’s ICT in Education Program: an International Perspective (2003)J. Enrique Hinostroza, Ignacion Jara and Andrea Guzman
This paper describes the Chilean education ICT infrastructure situation in the global context
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of consent in Chile is deemed to be fourteen years of age and the age of majority is eighteen.
- Article 361, Penal Code. Rape. Defines the offense of a person intentionally penetrating the vagina, anus or mouth of another person over the age of fourteen with their penis and without the consent of the other person This includes by the use of force, or where the victim is unable to give consent due to physical or mental lack of capacity. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between five years and a day to twenty years.
- Article 362, Penal Code. Statutory Rape. States that sexual intercourse with a child under the age of fourteen is classed as rape and is punishable by a term of imprisonment between five years and one day to 20 years.
- Article 363, Penal Code. Rape of a Minor. This Article states that it is an offense to have sexual intercourse with a minor aged fourteen or above, where one of the following circumstances applies: the minor is physically or mentally disabled; the offender abused a position of authority over the victim; the victim is in a situation of severe distress; or the offender takes advantage of the victim’s sexual inexperience or ignorance. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between three years and a day to ten years.
- Article 366, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of a Child Aged 14 or Above. Defines the offense as to perform a sexual act, not amounting to intercourse, which involves the victim’s genitalia, anus or mouth, with a minor aged fourteen or above. Includes where this occurs without the victim’s consent, by the use of force, or where the victim is unable to give consent due to physical or mental lack of capacity. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between three years and a day to five years. The same penalty applies if the minor is physically or mentally disabled; the offender abused a position of authority over the victim; the victim is in a situation of severe distress; or the offender takes advantage of the victim’s sexual inexperience or ignorance.
- Article 366 bis, Penal Code. Sexual Abuse of a Child Under the Age of 14. States that any sexual activity with a minor under the age of fourteen, not amounting to penetration will render the offender liable to between five and ten years’ imprisonment.
- Article 366 quater, Penal Code. Child Pornography. This Article states that anyone who, without performing a sexual act as defined above, engages in acts of sexual significance with a child under the age of fourteen, or makes the minor watch pornographic material to pursue their sexual arousal or excitement, is guilty of an offense and will be liable to imprisonment for between 541 days and five years. The Article also covers the offense of producing and distributing child pornography with a minor under the age of fourteen, including via electronic means. This will render the offender liable to imprisonment for a term of between three years and one day to five years. The same penalties will apply if the child is aged fourteen or above but under eighteen. The offense includes sexual penetration and where one of the following applies: the offender used force or intimidation, abused a position of authority, or took advantage of the victim’s sexual inexperience; the minor is physically or mentally disabled, or is in a situation of severe distress.
- Article 366 quinquies, Penal Code. Production of Child Pornography. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for a term of between three years and one day to five years for anyone who is involved in the production of child pornography, whatever its medium. The definition of child pornography includes virtual representations of minors under the age of eighteen, actual or simulated sexual activities, any representation of a minor’s sexual organs or their image or voice, if it is used primarily for sexual purposes.
- Article 367, Penal Code. Prostitution of Minors. Defines the offense of promoting or facilitating the prostitution of minors to satisfy the sexual desires of another person. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between three years and one day to five years. If the offender has committed the offense by abusing a position of authority or through fraudulent means, additional penalties apply in the form of a fine of 31 to 35 monthly tax units. One monthly tax unit is equal to over 42,000 Chilean Pesos.
- Article 367 ter, Penal Code. Child Prostitution. Defines the offense as obtaining sexual services from a minor aged between fourteen and seventeen where it does not meet the criteria for the crimes of rape or statutory rape, and money or services are exchanged. This is punishable by imprisonment for three days and one day to five years.
- Article 368, Penal Code. Aggravated Penalties. This Article states that if the offense under Article 367ter was committed by a person abusing a position of authority or trust over the victim, by ministers of religion, teachers, government employees, or a person entrusted with the victim’s care or upbringing […], an aggravated penalty in the form of the maximum allowable sentence of 20 years’ imprisonment and a fine of 30 monthly tax units will apply.
- Article 374, Penal Code. Obscenity. This section defines the offense of selling, importing, exporting, distributing, disseminating or displaying pornography which has involved the participation of a minor under the age of eighteen. This is punishable by imprisonment for between three years and one day to five years or a fine of eleven to 20 monthly tax units. The same penalty applies to the person who produced the obscene writing, photograph or picture, or who reproduced in ways other than by print.
- Article 374 bis, Penal Code. Distribution of Child Pornography. States that anyone who markets, imports, exports, disseminates or displays pornographic material, whatever its medium, depicting a minor under the age of eighteen will be liable to imprisonment for three years and a day to five years. Anyone who maliciously acquires or stores such material, including in electronic form, will be sentenced to imprisonment for a term between 541 days to three years.
- Article 374 ter, Penal Code. The Article states that where a telecommunications system is used in the commission of an offense under Article 374 and 374 bis, and originates or terminates in Chile, the offense is deemed to have taken place in that country and will be prosecuted accordingly.
- Article 411 ter, Penal Code. Trafficking for Prostitution. States that anyone who promotes or facilitates the entry or departure of persons to engage in prostitution in Chile or abroad will be liable to imprisonment for between three years and one day to five years, plus a fine of 20 monthly tax units.
- Article 411 quater. Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation etc.Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for between five to fifteen years for anyone who, by violence, coercion, intimidation, deception, abuse of power, exploitation of a position of vulnerability or dependency of the victim, or the giving or receiving of payments or other benefits, captures, transfers, harbors or receives person(s) for the purpose of subjecting them to some form of sexual exploitation, including pornography, forced labor, servitude or slavery. Where the victim is a minor under the age of eighteen, even if none of the circumstances specified above applies, the offender will be liable to ten to fifteen years’ imprisonment and a fine of 50 to 100 monthly tax units. The same penalties shall apply to anyone who promotes, facilitates or finances the implementation of the actions described in this Article.
In 2003 Chile ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2004 - Chile, as a state member of the Organization of American States (OAS) adopted the Comprehensive Inter-American Cybersecurity Strategy, which aimed to enhance international cooperation on cyber security among member states.
Chile undertook a massive reform of its legal system, with updates and amendments to numerous laws, including the Penal Code. Many laws involving offenses against children, such as child pornography and trafficking in children were updated in 2011. Some penalties were enhanced and law enforcement was given additional powers to undertake investigations in such cases, allowing the monitoring of suspects’ telecommunications networks and online activity.