Canada Federal

Population

35,099,836

Population 0‑14

15.5%

Internet Users

92.5%

Facebook Users

21,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

30,500,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

Canadian Centre for Child Protection

This charitable organization is dedicated to the personal safety of all children and provides a number of programs that aim to keep children safe online including, Cybertip, Kids in the Know, and MissingKids.ca.

Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children

CCRC is a network of Canadian organizations and individuals who promote respect for the rights of children. Its purpose is to: exchange information; provide public education materials about the Convention on the Rights of the Child; monitor implementation of the Convention in Canada; and engage in dialogue with government officials on child rights issues.

CANeLearn

The Canadian e-Learning Network aims to provide leadership that champions student success in online and blended learning.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

MediaSmarts

This Canadian-based non profit develops digital and media literacy programs and resources for Canadian homes, schools and communities to support adults with information and tools so they can help children and teens develop the critical thinking skills they need for interacting with the media they love.

Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada

The mandate of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada (OPC) is overseeing compliance with both the Privacy Act, which covers the personal information-handling practices of federal government departments and agencies, and the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), Canada’s federal private-sector privacy law.

Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada Federal

The mandate of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada Federal (OPC) is overseeing compliance with both the Privacy Act, which covers the personal information-handling practices of federal government departments and agencies, and the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), Canada Federal’s federal private-sector privacy law.

Public Safety Canada

The government agency offers resources and contacts for reporting cyber security incidents including cybercrime and child exploitation.

Public Safety Canada Federal

The government agency offers resources and contacts for reporting cyber security incidents including cybercrime and child exploitation.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

The RCMP operates The National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre (NCECC). The NCECC was established in 2003 as the law enforcement component of Canada’s National Strategy to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation on the Internet. The Centre was created in response to the recognition that the Internet was being more frequently used to facilitate sexual exploitation crimes against children including the exchange of child sexual abuse images and child luring.

TELUS

A Canadian telecommunications company that offers a variety of tech products and is active in the Internet safety space.

Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)

This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.

Child sexual exploitation: a study of international comparisons (2015)

Cameron, G., Sayer, E. M., Thomson, L., and Wilson, S

The report focuses on the issue of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) in high income countries, including Sweden, Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

Young Canadians Experiences with Electronic Bullying (2015)

J. Li, W. Craig

A nationally representative sample of Canadian youth aged 12 to 18 completed an online survey assessing their experiences of online bullying and victimization, and the motivation and challenges associated with intervening.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Child Sexual Explitation: A study of International Comparison (2015)

The Virtual Staff College

This report presents a rapid desk review of international comparisons of CSE.

Young Canadians in a Wired World Series (2015)

V. Steeves

This research project tracks and investigates the behaviours, attitudes, and opinions of Canadian children and youth with respect to their use of the Internet.

Mapping Digital Literacy Policy and Practice in the Canadian Education Landscape (2015)

M. Hoechsmann, H. DeWaard

This report draws on policy and curriculum documents from across the country to synthesize key concepts and best practices in current digital literacy education.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Sex Trafficking (2014)

U.S. Department of Justice

This is a comprehensive paper by the U.S. Department of Justice on the issue of Commercial Sexual Exploitations of Children

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Taking Stock of Cyberbullying: A Scan of the PEI Context (2014)

PEI Department of Environment, Labour & Justice

The goal of this Discussion Paper is to address cyberbullying in PEI using the results of a broad-based community consultation and environmental scan.

Information and Communication Technologies for Education in an Algonquin First Nation in Quebec (2014)

E. Lockhart, A. Tenasco, T. Whiteduck, S. O'Donnell

This study explores the use of technology in the education sector in Kitigan Zibi and focuses on the situation of having technology readily available at school but less so at home.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Your Insights on Social Media in Alberta (2013)

Insights West, 6S Marketing

An online poll surveyed 831 Albertan adults regarding their social media use.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Media and Technology Habits of Canadian Youth (2013)

Shaw Rocket Fund

The objectives of this study were to check the pulse on media and technology usage habits of Canadian youth, with regards to device and content usage and behaviours and explore how Canadian youth discover and engage with TV programs/video content, and across which platform.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Use of Social Media and Web 2.0 Technologies to Increase Knowledge and Skills of British Columbia Nurses (2012)

N. Frisch, E. Borycki, G. Mickelson, P. Atherton, H. Novak-Lauscher, D. Hooker, K. Ho

This study presents the experiences of a province-wide network in Canada that was developed using social media and Web 2.0 technologies as a means to increase nurses’ capacity in nursing health services research.

Respectful and Responsible Relationships: There's No App for That (2012)

A. Wayne MacKay

This report is the findings of a taskforce reporting to the Minister of Education

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Internet (2011)

Inter American Children’s Instirute

This is a report to the Organization of American States on the situation of the member states in the issue of commercial sexual exploitation and the impact of internet in their lives.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Protection des renseignements personnels – Projet et réalité (2009)

P. Comeau

The report covers some key ideas, in particular the need for institutional dynamism in a rapidly changing field and the plurality of effective models for the protection of the right to privacy.

Police Perspectives on the Capacity of the Canadian Police System to Respond to “Child Pornography” on the Internet (2009)

C. Dawson

The purpose of this major paper was to explore this phenomenon within an international context, and assess the capacity of Canadian law enforcement (national and municipal) to respond.

A Picture of Health: Highlights from the 2008 BC Adolescent Health Survey (2008)

A. Smith, D. Stewart, M. Peled, C. Poon, E. Saewyc, and the McCreary Centre Society

The study addresses key information, not only about the current health picture of BC youth but also about health trends and the effect of programs and policies implemented over the past 15 years and has a section on Internet safety.

Gouvernance des contenus audiovisuels sur Internet et protection de la jeunesse –état de la situation et pistes de solutions (2007)

ISOC Quebec

The report analyzes the regulation of Internet content including different methods and country approaches.

Bridging the Gap: Best Practices and Policies to Address the Online High-Risk Activities of Youth in BC (2007)

M. Horton, L. Stoneman, J. Wheeldon

This document, prepared for the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General for the Province of British Columbia, suggests that a provincial strategy to combat online sexual exploitation of youth should be based on a human service approach, favor cooperation and coordination amongst industry, government, NGOs and the public and have a strong focus on education, awareness, research and training

OmniAlberta January 2006 Survey (2006)

Alberta Government

The subject of this survey is a range of Internet safety topics and measures perceived risk among respondents.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Fact Sheet (2005)

National Center for Missing & Exploited Children

Informational paper on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children with facts from different studies on child abuse in U.S., Canada and Mexico

Internet Safety in Southern Ontario Schools (2005)

J. Barnett

This article reports on a survey conducted with preservice teachers about their perceptions of Internet safety in schools in southern Ontario.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children In the U.S., Canada and Mexico (2001)

Richard J. Estes, Neil Alan Weiner

Research on the patterns of CSE and CSEC in U.S., Canada and Mexico.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children In the U.S., Canada Federal and Mexico (2001)

Richard J. Estes, Neil Alan Weiner

Research on the patterns of CSE and CSEC in U.S., Canada Federal and Mexico.

Privacy

Since January 1, 2004, Canadian organizations that collect information during the course of a commercial activity must comply with ten fair information principles set out in Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) unless there is ‘substantially similar legislation’ in the province or territory in which the organization is conducting its business. Under this Act, organizations must disclose how they will use the information and must get the individual’s consent for its collection, use and disclosure. Children and youth are not specifically mentioned in the legislation, but it is assumed that the legislation applies to young people, and this will be tested through the courts. These privacy principles are provided by the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada’s (OPC).

Hate Speech

Section 319 of the Criminal Code make it a criminal offense to advocate genocide, publicly incite hatred or willfully promote hatred against an ‘identifiable group’. An identifiable group is defined as any section of the public distinguished by color, race, religion, ethnic origin or sexual orientation. Online communications that advocate genocide or willfully promote or incite hatred are likely to fall within the provisions because the Internet is a public network.

Under section 320.1 of the Criminal Code, a judge has the authority to order the removal of hate propaganda from a computer system that is available to the public. Such authority extends to all computer systems located within Canada. In addition, Section 13 of the Canadian Human Rights Act prohibits the communication by means of a telecommunication undertaking, including the Internet.

Other Technological Crimes include:

  • Section 342.1(1) Unauthorized Use of Computers. These provisions address hackers and those who use other people’s accounts on without authorization.
  • Section 430 (1.1) Mischief to Data. This section of the Code addresses offenses such as destroying or altering data, rendering data ineffective, obstructing or interfering with its lawful use, or obstructing or interfering with anyone who is entitled to access data.

Section 150 Sexual Offences

For sections 151, 152 and 153, consent is not a defence in respect of a child under 16 years, except in cases wherein the complainant is 12 years of age or more but under 14 years and the accused is less than two years older and not in a position of trust or authority towards the complainant.

  • Section 151 Sexual Interference. Every person who, for a sexual purpose, touches, directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an object, any part of the body of a person under the age of 16 years. They will be liable to a term of imprisonment of 14 years for an indictable offense, with a 1 year minimum sentence.
  • Section 152 Invitation to Sexual Touching. Every person who, for a sexual purpose, invites, counsels or incites a person under the age of 16 years to touch, directly or indirectly, with a part of the body or with an object, the body of any person, including the body of the person who so invites, counsels or incites and the body of the person under the age of 16 years. The sentence for this offense is a maximum of 14 years in jail.
  • Section 153(1) Sexual Exploitation. Every person commits an offence who is in a position of trust or authority towards a young person, is in a relationship of dependency with the young person or who is in a relationship that is exploitative of the young person and for a sexual purpose, touches any part of the body, directly or indirectly or with an object.

    Or for a sexual purpose, invites, counsels or incites a young person to touch, directly or indirectly, the body of any person, including the body of the person who so invites, counsels or incites and the body of the young person.

    They will be liable to a term of imprisonment of 14 years for an indictable offense, with a 1 year minimum sentence.

Section 163 Offences Tending to Corrupt Morals

For all sections within 163, the motives of the accused are irrelevant.

  • Section 163(1) Corrupting Morals. Every one commits an offence who knowingly, without lawful justification or excuse, makes, prints, publishes, distributes, circulates or has possession for the purpose of publication or distribution of any obscene written, matter, picture, model, or other record.
  • Section 163(8) Obscene Publication. For the purposes of this Act, any publication a dominant characteristic of which is the undue exploitation of sex, or of sex and any one or more of the following subjects, namely, crime, horror, cruelty and violence, shall be deemed to be obscene.
  • Section 163.1(1) In this section, child pornography means a written, audio, photographic, film, video or other visual representation of a person who is or is depicted as being under the age of eighteen years engaged in or depicted as engaged in explicit sexual activity.
  • Section 163.1(2) Making child pornography. Every person who makes, prints, publishes or possesses for the purpose of publication any child pornography is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of one year.
  • Section 163.1(3) Distribution etc of child pornography. Every person who transmits, makes available, distributes, sells, advertises, imports, exports or possesses for the purpose of transmission, availability, distribution, sale, advertising or exportation any child pornography is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of one year.
  • Section 163.1(4) Possession of child pornography. Every person who possesses any child pornography is guilty of an indictable offence with a maximum sentence of imprisonment for 10 years.
  • Section 163.1 (4.1) Accessing child pornography. Every person who accesses any child pornography is guilty of an indictable offence with a maximum sentence of imprisonment for 10 years.
  • Section 163.1 (4.2) Interpretation. For the purposes of subsection (4.1), a person accesses child pornography who knowingly causes child pornography to be viewed by, or transmitted to, himself or herself.

279 Kidnapping, Trafficking in Persons, Hostage Taking and Abduction

Kidnapping

  • 279 (1) Every person commits an offence who kidnaps a person with intent
    • (a) to cause the person to be confined or imprisoned against the person’s will;
    • (b) to cause the person to be unlawfully sent or transported out of Canada against the person’s will; or
    • (c) to hold the person for ransom or to service against the person’s will.

Trafficking in persons

  • 279.01 (1) Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable
    • (a) to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of five years if they kidnap, commit an aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or cause death to, the victim during the commission of the offence; or
    • (b) to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years in any other case.

Trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years

  • 279.011 (1) Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person under the age of eighteen years, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person under the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable
    • (a) to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of six years if they kidnap, commit an aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or cause death to, the victim during the commission of the offence; or
    • (b) to imprisonment for a term of not more than fourteen years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of five years, in any other case.

Exploitation

  • 279.04 (1) For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.
  • Marginal note:Factors
  • (2) In determining whether an accused exploits another person under subsection (1), the Court may consider, among other factors, whether the accused
    • (a) used or threatened to use force or another form of coercion;
    • (b) used deception; or
    • (c) abused a position of trust, power or authority.

In 2002, the Canadian Criminal Code was amended to include new offenses that would help combat the luring of individuals under the age of eighteen, by making it ‘illegal to communicate with children over the Internet for the purpose of committing a sexual offense’ (Department of Justice, 2002). Accordingly, police services across Canada began collecting and reporting child luring incidents that come to their attention under this new legislative amendment.

Since then, there have been further amendments to the Code that take into account the unique attributes of digital technology. These include making it an offense to communicate with children via a computer system for the purpose of facilitating or committing certain sexual offenses, such as child luring or abduction.

In November 2009 the Government of Canada announced it would be introducing legislation to assist in the fight against sexual exploitation of children by requiring suppliers of Internet services to report Internet child pornography. The proposed Act would apply to suppliers of Internet services to the public, such as Internet access, electronic mail, content hosting and social networking sites. It would require them to:

  • report, to a designated agency, tips they receive regarding Web sites where child pornography may be available to the public; and
  • notify police and safeguard evidence if they believe that a child pornography offense has been committed using an Internet service that they provide.

Other amendments prohibit exploitative sexual relationships between adults and youth between the ages of sixteen and eighteen; taking into consideration age difference, evolution of the relationship and control or influence over the young person. (153.1) In addition, in May 2008 the age of consent was raised to sixteen (from fourteen) matching Canada’s age of consent with that of the United States.

Regarding so-called child pornography, the Criminal Code makes it an offense to:

  • possess any child pornography (section 163.1(4))
  • access child pornography – which includes transmitting child pornography to oneself (section 163.4(1))
  • make, print, publish or possess for the purpose of publication any child pornography (section 163.1(2))
  • import, distribute, sell or possess for the purpose of distribution of sale any child pornography – including via e-mail, and by posting material on Web sites (section 163.1(3))

If there are reasonable grounds, a judge can issue a warrant of seizure on any material from a computer system presumed to constitute child pornography. The ISP or custodian of the system may be ordered to remove the material, provide the court with electronic copies of it and/or provide information on the identity and location of the person who posted it. If the material is proven to be child pornography, the custodian may be ordered to delete the material.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

The RCMP operates The National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre (NCECC). The NCECC was established in 2003 as the law enforcement component of Canada’s National Strategy to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation on the Internet. The Centre was created in response to the recognition that the Internet was being more frequently used to facilitate sexual exploitation crimes against children including the exchange of child sexual abuse images and child luring.

The mandate of the NCECC is to reduce the vulnerability of children to Internet-facilitated sexual exploitation by identifying victimized children; investigating and assisting in the prosecution of sexual offenders; and strengthening the capacity of municipal, territorial, provincial, federal, and international police agencies through training and investigative support. The RCMP also runs online safety programs. The website, www.deal.org is an information and prevention tool by youth for youth and www.internet101.ca is a well-respected and well-established police-led online safety initiative that is currently being merged with deal.org.