Cambodia

Population

15,708,756

Population 0‑14

31.4%

Internet Users

31.8%

Facebook Users

3,300,000

Mobile Subscribers

25,800,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

In December 2004, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) published its first ‘Policy and Strategies on Information and Communication Technology in Education in Cambodia’. Its vision was to improve the effectiveness of education and increase digital literacy among the Kingdom’s citizens. Goals included improving access to and quality of education with ICT as a major tool for teaching and learning. The policy focused on four main areas: access to ICT for all teachers and students to reduce the digital divide between Cambodia and neighboring countries; ICT as a tool in different subjects and as a subject in its own right; education for all regardless of age and location; and the use of ICT to improve education management.

UNESCO Bangkok launched the SchoolNet project in July 2003 to assist educators in integrating ICT into the everyday teaching and learning process in the Asia-Pacific region. SchoolNet promotes the efficient use of ICT in education through connecting schools to the Internet and thus creating a network of schools, which will encourage students and teachers alike to share resources and information and build connections among schools and individuals. Some 24 schools from Cambodia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam participated in the project, which concluded in 2006. SchoolNet demonstrated how ICT could be used to improve the quality of education and prepare students for life in a knowledge-based society and developed learning materials that supported the implementation of ICT in learning and teaching.

The British Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP) held a series of three training programs focusing on child sexual abuse and exploitation in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam from October 2010 and March 2011, funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Teachers and other professionals working with children were invited to participate in three day sessions led by specialist CEOP trainers on issues including children’s rights, online vulnerabilities and travelling sex offenders. The participants could then educate young local people using CEOP’s resources and train other professionals to create a network of individuals who can deliver the the online safety message in their area.

The more recent ‘Master Plan for ICT in Education 2009 – 2013’ was introduced in the framework of the Education Strategic Plan 2009 - 2013, and encompasses initiatives aimed at utilizing ICT in education to a higher level.14 Its objectives are similar to the 2004 plan: increasing access to education by utilizing ICT as an education delivery media; using ICT to enhance the quality of basic education; developing ICT-based professional skills required for the development of a knowledge-based society and increasing the efficiency of the education management system. The plan is divided into five major areas: General Education, Higher Education, Teacher Training, Non-formal Education and Informal Education, and educational ICT management.

In Cambodia’s ‘National ICT Policy 2015’, the government recognizes the need to enhance the level of ICT literacy among the population by providing equal opportunities for the acquisition of ICT in education. Educators will receive training in the instruction of ICT, while the facilities to teach ICT at all levels of national education will be provided.

The NGO, American Assistance for Cambodia, operates throughout the country, targeting youth and the rural poor with projects related to health, education and technology. Its largest project, the Rural Schools project, has so far provided more than 550 primary and secondary schools to help promote education in rural Cambodia.The project involves working with partners, such as individuals, companies or NGOs and funding is matched by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. The NGO works closely and is associated with Japan Relief for Cambodia.

Another of the rural schools in the project was founded by Nicholas and Elaine Negroponte. This inspired Nicholas to go on and found the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative. To date, over 1,000 laptops have been allocated to children or schools in various parts of the country. OLPC partners with CAMBODIA~p.r.i.d.e. (an acronym for providing rural innovative digital education, founded by Elaine Negroponte in 2005) to improve rural education accessibility in the country, particularly with regard to technology.

American Assistance for Cambodia / Japan Relief for Cambodia

Founded in 1993, the orbanization works throughout Cambodia to improve life for young people and the country’s rural poor in the areas of education, technology and health. Its largest project is the Rural Schools Project.

Cambodian National Council for Children (CNCC)

The council was created to implement the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and has set up an inter-sectoral working group to prepare reports on its progress.

Child Rights Coalition Asia

CRC is a network of children’s rights and human rights organizations in Asia, which brings the child rights perspectives and agenda to regional and international advocacy.

Don Bosco Sihanoukville Technical School

The school works to establish an Internet safety network of NGOs and government organizations across Cambodia and provides poor youth with skills necessary to get a job, including IT skills.

ECPAT in Cambodia

The international organization was established in 1995 and works to prevent the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Its 27 member organizations work together to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation and aim to ensure that children everywhere in the Kingdom can enjoy their fundamental rights.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport

The Ministry develope ICT policies and strategies to support the government in transforming the Kingdom into a knowledge-based society and bridge the digital divide.

National Information Communications Technology Development Authority (NiDA)

The Authority is responsible for formulating and developing IT promotion policies for the country. It is also responsible for the implementation of IT policy to ensure maximum economic growth, as well as monitoring and auditing all such policies throughout the Kingdom. It also has oversight for camCERT, the country’s Computer Emergency Response Team.

Terre des Hommes Netherlands

This NGO focuses on stopping child sexual exploitation, child labor, child abuse and child trafficking in Asia, East Africa and Europe.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Committee on the Rights of the Child Reviews 12 countries’ Child Rights Records (2015)

OHCHR

This report reviews 12 States’ actions based on the obligations to the Convention of the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Reducing violence against children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

Reducing violence agains children, with special focus on sexual exploitation of children and child sex tourism. (2014)

The Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT

This is a program by the Netherlands, Defence for Children and ECPAT, which objective is to reduce violence against children, with special attention to child sexual exploitation and child sex tourism.

Protection of Children Against Sexual Exploitation in Tourism (2013)

ECPAT

Report on the different aspects of sexual exploitation of children on Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Gambia and Dominican republic. It also highlights they actions and mechanisms of protection.

Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)

Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei

This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.

Small World, Big Responsibility: The UK’s role in the global trade in children (2012)

Erika Hall, Phillippa Lei

This report preset information on the different forms of child exploitation. Its purpose is to raise awareness to this global issue.

ICT Usage and Student Perceptions in Cambodia and Japan (2009)

James Elwood, George MacLean

This article uses survey data from students in Cambodia and Japan to explore how young people feel about internet technology in regard to educational and personal use.

ICT in Education Reform in Cambodia: Problems, Politics, and Policies Impacting Implementation (2008)

Jayson W. Richardson

This report critiques the ICT policy in Cambodia and looks at how issues such as politics may negatively impact the policy’s success.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

‘Welcome to the rape camp’: Sexual exploitation and the internet in cambodia (2000)

Donna M. Hughes

This article addresses the role of internet technology in the sexual exploitaiton of women and children in Cambodia.

This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual activity in Cambodia is fifteen, and the age of simple majority is eighteen. The age of consent for marriage set at 20 for men and eighteen for women.

  • Article 188, Penal Code. Crimes Against Humanity. Lists crimes punishable by life imprisonment, which includes “rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced sterilization and all other form of sexual violence of the same seriousness.”
  • Article 239, Penal Code. Elements of Rape. States that all acts of sexual penetration, of any kind whatsoever, or an act of penetrating any object into sexual organs of a person of either the same sex or different sexes by violence, coercion, threat or surprise constitutes a rape punishable by imprisonment from five to ten years. The age of consent for sexual intercourse is 15 years old.
  • Article 241, Penal Code. Aggravating Circumstances in connection with Victims. States that rape is punishable by an increased sentence of imprisonment of seven to fifteen years when it is committed against a person who is “particularly vulnerable due to his/her age.”
  • Article 246, Penal Code. Acts of Immodesty. States that “acts of immodesty of any kind” committed on any person by violence, coercion, threat or by surprise is punishable by imprisonment for one to three years and a fine of 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 Riels.
  • Article 248, Penal Code. Aggravating Circumstances Depending on Victims. States that offenses criminalized by Article 246 are punishable by imprisonment for two to five years and a fine of 4,000,000 to 10,000,000 Riels when it is committed against a person “particularly vulnerable due to his/her age.” Article 249, Penal Code. Exposure of Sex Organ. States that exposing the sex organs in sight of another person in a place which is accessible to the public eyes is punishable by imprisonment for six days to three months and a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 Riels.
  • Article 250, Penal Code. Sexual Harassment. Defines sexual harassment as “an act that a person abuses the power which was vested to him/her in his/her functions in order to put pressure again and again on other persons in exchange for sexual favour.” This act is punishable by imprisonment for six days to three months and a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 Riels.
  • Article 284, Penal Code. Procuring. States that the following are crimes related to prostitution: 1. drawing a financial profit from the prostitution of another person; 2. assisting or protecting the prostitution of another or running with whatever means the prostitution activities; 3. recruiting , abducting or luring any person to become a prostitute; 4. exercising pressure on a person to become a prostitute. These acts are punishable by imprisonment for two to five years and a fine of 4,000,000 to 10,000,000 Riels.
  • Article 289, Penal Code. Aggravating Circumstances With Regard to Victim. States that imprisonment will be increased to seven to fifteen years when the procurer has sexual relations with a minor.
  • Article 302, Penal Code. Infringement on the Right of Private Picture. States that taking picture of a person in a private place without their consent is punishable by imprisonment for one month to one year and a fine of between 100,000 to 2,000,000 Riels.
  • Article 341, Penal Code. Obscene Acts on a Minor of Less Than 15 Years of Age. States that a mature person committing the obscene acts on a minor of less than fifteen years of age without violence will be punished by imprisonment from one to three years and a fine from 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 Riels.

Law on Suppression of the Kidnapping and Trafficking of Human Persons and Exploitation of Human Persons.

  • Article 3. This Article states that anyone who entices by cajolery, promise of money or jewelry, or by any other means, with or without consent of the person involved, by use of coercion, threat or drugs inducing sleep or causing loss of consciousness or memory in order to kidnap for trafficking or engaging in prostitution will be punished by imprisonment for ten to fifteen years. Where the victim is under the age of fifteen, an aggravated penalty of fifteen to 20 years’ imprisonment will apply. The same penalties will apply to any accomplice, seller, buyer or receiver. Anyone who provides money or other means for the commission of the offense will also be deemed an accomplice. The transportation, the materials and the property used during the commission of the crime will be confiscated.
  • Article 4. Defines a brothel-keeper pimp as someone who assists or protects one or many persons, by whatever means, knowing of the prostitution of that person or persons, or solicits clients for them for the purpose of prostitution. The definition also includes anyone who regularly shares the profits derived from the prostitution, in whatever form; anyone who trains or coaxes, by whatever means, a person to engage in prostitution; anyone who acts as a middleman, in whatever form, establishing contacts between prostitutes and the brothel-keeper or the provider of profit for the prostitution of other persons; or anyone who allows a person to live at his/her house or any other place for the purpose of engaging him/her in prostitution for his/her profit.
  • Article 5. States that any brothel-keeper or pimp will be liable to imprisonment for five to ten years. A recidivist will receive double the penalty. A penalty of ten to 20 years’ imprisonment will apply to a brothel-keeper in the following circumstances: the victim is a minor under the age of fifteen; the offense is committed by coercion, violence or threat or use of a weapon; the offense is committed by a husband, wife, fiancé, fiancée, father, mother, guardian, who forces a person to engage in prostitution; the coercion of a victim to engage in prostitution in a foreign country or a victim who is a foreigner in Cambodia to engage in prostitution.
  • Article 6. States that any accomplice to an offense against Article 4 or 5, or anyone who attempts to commit one of the offenses, will be liable to the same penalties as prescribed above.
  • Article 7. States that it is an offense to establish a place to commit an immoral or obscene act. The penalty for this offense is imprisonment for between one and five years and a fine of between KHR 5m to KHR 30m. This will be doubled for any recidivist.
  • Article 8. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for ten to 20 years for anyone who commits an immoral act with a minor under the age of fifteen, with or without the minor’s consent, or anyone who buys a minor from a pimp or another person. A recidivist will be liable to the maximum punishment. In addition to the principal penalty, the court may apply the accessory penalties of degradation of civic rights and banishment.
  • A variety of specific cybercrimes are outlined in Articles 317-320 and Articles 427-432 of the Penal Code.

2002 - Cambodia signed and ratified the Optional Protocol to The Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (and has acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child).

Also since 2002, the Department of Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection’s Information and Technology Office has operated to combat child sexual abuse online. The Department provides police training at different levels throughout the 13 provinces on child interviewing techniques, collection of forensic evidence, how to use the internet in tracking pedophiles and how to improve a criminal case file to be sent to court.

2008 - Cambodia’s Computer Emergency Response Team camCERT began operation. The team works with the Cambodian government to provide internet security, training, and a point of contact for reporting cybercrimes.

2010 - As technology in Cambodia becomes more accessible, the Department of Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection (AHTJP) is becoming more involved with suppressing the buying of child prostitutes through the internet. They are also taking steps to be involved in the international sphere: in 2010, an officer of the AHTJP came to the U.S. to be a profession witness in the trial of an American citizen charged with having sex with a minor in Cambodia.

2012 - The Cambodian police force has been taking steps to integrate more women into the force in an effort to address gender inequality that perpetuates child sexual exploitation. Officers are receiving training on intelligence-led investigations, victim identification, and the detection and prosecution of criminal perpetrators to help them combat child online sex tourism, such as this UNODC training conducted in 2012.

2015 - The Cambodian National Council for Children (CNCC) was created in 1995 to implement the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which prepared a recent report on its progress. The Protocol is exercised through a country programme every 5 years, and each year an annual programme is prepared to set annual goals. Cambodia reports accomplishments such as implementing a collaboration between the Department of Anti-Human Trafficking and Juvenile Protection under the Ministry of Interior and international organizations to train police officers in the Cambodian capital and 13 provinces to improve investigating skills, search for evidence, rescue skill, interview technique and establishing cases for the court in cases regarding child sexual exploitation. The Department also established a 24-hour telephone hotline that receives calls in Khmer and English. In spite of actions taken, the UN has stated that Cambodia needs to take more substantive action in preventing the exploitation of children.