South Australia

Population

1,701,100

Population 0‑14

18.0%

Internet Users

71.0%
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

2004 – The Department of Education and Child Development published its R-10 Design Technology Teaching Resource. The guide provided support for teachers in the planning, programming and assessment process of using the South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability (SACSA) education framework. It also gave examples for the use of ICTs based on grade level.

2008 – The Keeping Safe: Child Protection Curriculum was created within the context of the South Australian Curriculum, Standards and Accountability (SACSA) Framework. It aims to teach students in all Years to recognize abuse and develop ways of protecting themselves. The Child Protection Curriculum is to be employed via individual implementation plans developed by each school through the student wellbeing team and curriculum leaders. Every learner should be presented with this curriculum at least once at each band level (ages 3 - 5; Reception to Year 2; Primary Years; Middle Years and Senior Years) covering all four focus areas.

2009 – The DECD issued guidelines for schools and parents about cybersafety. The document is designed to assist school managers as well as teachers and outlines legislation, policies and practices that promote safe online learning.

2011 – The Minister for Education commissioned a report to review aspects of the then Department for Education & Child Development processes and procedures related to bullying and violence in schools. The report made 14 recommendations, providing for the strengthening of procedures where incidents of violence occur to properly involve parents and police, the strengthening of the involvement of the Coalition to Decrease Bullying, Harassment and Violence in South Australian Schools, and raising the profile of bullying policies and increasing monitoring of bullying behavior.

Also in 2011, the DECD established its original child protection in schools, early childhood education and care policy. The policy includes provisions governing screening, training and support, conduct, curriculum, and communication and collaboration to keep children safe.

2014 – The Department of Education and Child Development released its 2014-2017 strategic plan. The plan includes improving and integrating child safety by fostering a community agenda to protect children from harm. The strategic plan was accompanied by the Building a High Performing System plan, which prioritizes updating the department’s ageing ICT infrastructure and investing in new technologies. The Families SA Service plan was also released, outlining changes to the delivery of child protection services.

2015 – The child protection in schools, early childhood education and care policy was updated to include a screening and suitability measure to maintain child-safe environments. Staff, volunteers and specific other persons will be screened to ensure adults are suitable to work, access or volunteer in DECD sites and services. Suitability for working with children must be established during recruitment and monitored continuously, and it is the responsibility of all adults to report inappropriate conduct towards children and young people.

Aboriginal Family Support Services

This group focuses on protecting aboriginal children and their communities. Its child-protection focus extends to youth support, community safety and wellbeing, and family programs.

Anglicare

This Anglican organization provides services to children, young people and families, with focus areas on relationships, parenting and education.

Australian Centre for Child Protection

This research centre within the University of South Australia aims to expand the Australian knowledge base about the impact of risk factors on children and families and address these risks within their social contexts. It provides policy advice and professional education, in addition to advocacy work and partnerships with government and community social service agencies.

Department of Education and Child Development

The Department is responsible for managing the state’s education system and providing children’s services and public education. This includes child safety and protection provisions and South Australia’s curriculum.

EdTechSA

This professional association provides support and leadership to educators related to learning and teaching with ICT, and the study of IT and digital technologies. It was formerly known as the Computers in Education Group of South Australia.

Safe and Well Online

This research project brings together University of South Australia, University of Western Sydney, Queensland University of Technology and Zuni to develop and evaluate an online social marketing framework to promote behavior changes towards cybersafety and wellness among young people.

SHineSA

SHine SA, a nonprofit, provides primary care services and education for sexual and relationship well-being. Its Focus Schools Program builds on its partnership with the DECD to support teachers in delivering relationships and sexual health education in 93 percent of South Australian secondary schools.

South Australian Curriculum Standards and Accountability Framework (SACSA)

SACSA describes the curriculum on which education for all learners in the state is based. It provides educators with background information to aid them in understanding how to meet the needs of all students. SACSA also sets the ICT curriculum standards for the state.

South Australia Police (SAPOL)

The police department’s website provides information and reporting mechanisms for cybercrime, child protection and wanted child sex offenders.

The Council of Education Associations of South Australia

This council represents more than 50 education associations and is a key advocacy group for teaching associations, representing all levels of schooling, learning areas and special interest groups.

The Design and Technology Teachers Association (DATTA SA)

DATTA SA is the professional organization for design, technology, innovation and engineering teachers in the state. It offers professional development activities, membership services, classroom activities and online curriculum support to members.

The Design and Technology Teachers Association (DATTA SA)

DATTA SA is the professional organization for design, technology, innovation and engineering teachers in the state. It offers professional development activities, membership services, classroom activities and online curriculum support to members.

The Student Wellbeing and Prevention of Violence (SWAPv)

This research centre within Flinders University focuses on young people’s health and wellbeing, specifically promoting mental health and violence prevention in schools.

The Wellbeing Research Group

This research team within the University of South Australia’s Centre for Research in Education focuses on the physical, social, emotional, spiritual, educational and mental health aspects of young people’s lives, including cyberbullying.

UnitingCare Burnside

This group works with disadvantaged children, young people and families, providing services which include early education, prevention and early intervention, drop in centres for young people and counselling.

School Policies on Bullying and Cyberbullying: Perspectives Across Three Australian States (2016)

C. Chalmers, M.A. Campbell, B.A. Spears, D. Butler, D. Cross, P. Slee, S. Kift

This study suggests that there was some lack of information about bullying and cyberbullying in schools, which could affect the subsequent development, dissemination and sustainability of school anti-bullying policies.

Cyberbullying, Sexting and the Law (2015)

B.A. Spears, P.T. Slee, J. Huntley

This report presents an evidence-base derived from the views of students, key stakeholders and the literature in relation to understandings of cyberbullying, sexting and the law.

A Report on the Evaluation of the Safe Schools Hub (2015)

C.M. Taddeo, B.A. Spears, L-A. Ey, D. Green, D.A. Price, T. Carslake, G. Cox

This study found that, generally, the availability and access to a website that promotes safe schools and student wellbeing while catering for a diverse range of education stakeholders is strongly supported and very much required.

Teachers' Knowledge and Confidence for Promoting Positive Mental Health in Primary School Communities (2013)

H. Askell-Williams, M.J. Lawson

This paper reports an investigation into Australian primary school teachers’ knowledge and confidence for mental health promotion, finding that teachers relied heavily on curriculum resources.

Maintaining Connectedness: Family Contact for Children in Statutory Residential Care in South Australia (2013)

M. Iannos, S. McLean, S. McDougall, F. Arney

This paper describes workers' reports of the family contact experiences of children in residential care in South Australia.

Online Technology for Enhancing First Year Experience: A Case Study at the University of South Australia (2012)

S.M. Aziz

This paper examines the impacts of online technology on student engagement and learning in a first year engineering course.

Digital Technology Access and Use among Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups in South Australia (2010)

L.A. Newman, K. Biedrzycki, F. Baum

This paper explores digital technology access and use among lower income and disadvantaged groups in South Australia.

The Role of Research in Child Protection Policy Reform: A Case Study of South Australia (2010)

K. Lewig, D. Scott, P. Holzer, F. Arney, C. Humphreys, L. Bromfield

Using recent child protection reform in South Australia as a case study, this paper analyses primary documentary sources and interviews to explore the issue of child abuse and neglect.

Child Protection: A New Approach in South Australia (1999)

T. Hetherington

This paper argues the case for an integrated approach to child protection services, embracing children's safety, risk and needs and incorporating formal assessment instruments.

This section contains details of the state’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent for sexual intercourse in South Australia is 17 years old.

  • Child Sex Offenders Registration Act 2006. This act requires people with a propensity to commit sexual offences against children to inform the Commissioner of Police of their whereabouts and other personal details for a specified time period. Registered offenders are prohibited from applying for or engaging in child-related work, punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment. The goal of this legislation is to reduce the risk of child sex offences, facilitate the investigation and prosecution of child sex offences and prevent child sex offenders from working with children.
  • Children’s Protection Act 1993. This act authorizes the DECD to intervene when a child is at risk of physical, sexual or emotional abuse. The intervention may include referring families to support services or seeking an order to remove a child from his/her parents’ care as a last resort. The law also makes education staff mandatory reporters of child abuse and neglect. The goal of the act is to keep children safe from harm, ensure that children can reach their full potential, promote caring attitudes and responses toward children, and recognize the family as the primary means of caring for and protecting children.
  • Section 26B, Summary Offences Act. Humiliating or degrading filming. A person who engages in humiliating or degrading filming is guilty of an offence, carrying a maximum penalty of one year imprisonment. A person who distributes a moving or still image obtained by humiliating or degrading filming knowing or having reason to believe the victim does not consent its distribution is guilty of an offence punishable by a maximum penalty of one year imprisonment. A person who takes part in a humiliating or degrading act and in relation to that act engages in conduct involving filming or distributing such an image without consent is guilty of to an offence punishable by up to two years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 26C, Summary Offences Act. Distribution of invasive image. A person who distributes an invasive image of another person, knowing or believing that the other person does not consent to the distribution of the image, commits this offence. The maximum penalty is a fine of up to $10,000 or up to two years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 26D, Summary Offences Act. Indecent filming. This section states that a person must not engage in indecent filming. The maximum penalty for filming a minor is a fine of $20,000 or four years’ imprisonment. In any other case, the maximum penalty is a fine of $10,000 or two years’ imprisonment. A person must not distribute a moving or still image obtained by indecent filming. The maximum penalty if the person filmed was a minor is a $20,000 fine or four years’ imprisonment. In any other case the maximum penalty is a fine of $10,000 or imprisonment for two years.
  • Section 40, Criminal Law. Unlawful removal of child from jurisdiction. This section states that a person commits a crime if they wrongfully take or send a child out of the jurisdiction. The maximum penalty for a basic offence is 15 years’ imprisonment; the maximum penalty for an aggravated offence is 19 years.
  • Section 48, Criminal Law. Rape. This section states that a person commits rape if he/she engages or continues to engage in sexual intercourse with another person who does not consent to engaging in sexual intercourse or who has withdrawn consent to sexual intercourse, and the offender knows or is recklessly indifferent to the lack of consent. Rape also includes compelling a person to engage or continue to engage in sexual intercourse with someone other than the offender, an act of self-penetration or an act of bestiality when the person has not consented. The maximum penalty for either crime is life imprisonment.
  • Section 48A, Criminal Law. Compelled sexual manipulation. A person is guilty of this crime if he/she, for a prurient purpose, compels a person to engage in or continue to engage in an act of sexual manipulation of the offender, an act of sexual manipulation of a person other than the offender, or an act of sexual self manipulation when the person so compelled does not consent or has withdrawn consent. The maximum penalty for a basic offence is 10 years’ imprisonment; the maximum penalty for an aggravated offence is 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 49, Criminal Law. Unlawful sexual intercourse. A person who has sexual intercourse with a person under 14 years old is guilty of an offense and is liable to life imprisonment. A person who has sexual intercourse with a person under 17 years old is guilty of an offense and is liable to 10 years’ imprisonment. It is a defence to the second crime to prove that the person was 16 years old on the date of the offence and the accused was under the age of 17 when the crime was alleged to have happened or believed on reasonable grounds that the person was 17 or older. A person who has sexual intercourse with a person under 18 years old over whom they are in a position of authority is guilty of an offense and liable to 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 50, Criminal Law. Persistent sexual exploitation of a child. An adult person who, over a period of not less than three days, commits more than one act of sexual exploitation of a particular child under the prescribed age is guilty of an offence. The maximum penalty is life imprisonment. This excludes acts of sexual exploitation committed when the child was at least 16 years old or when the defendant proves that he/she believed on reasonable grounds that the child was of or over the prescribed age at the time of the acts. The offender may, on the same information, be charged with other offences.
  • Section 56, Criminal Law. Indecent assault. This section lists the maximum penalties for this offence as eight years’ imprisonment for a basic offence and 10 years’ imprisonment for an aggravated offence. If the victim of the offence was under 14 years old at the time of the offence, it is an aggravated offence and is unnecessary for the prosecution to establish that the defendant knew or was reckless to the aggravating factor.
  • Section 58, Criminal Law. Acts of gross indecency. Any person who (a) commits an act of gross indecency with or in the presence of a person under 16 years old; (b) incites or procures the commission by any person of any act of gross indecency with the accused or in the presence of the accused, or with any other person in the presence of the accused; or (3) is otherwise party to the commission of any act of gross indecency by or with, or in the presence of, any such person, or by or with any other person in the presence of any such person, or by any such person with any other person in the presence of the accused commits this crime. A person guilty of his/her first offence will be imprisoned for no more than three years, and for subsequent offences for no more than five years. It is no defence under this section to charge that the act of indecency was committed with the consent of the person concerned.
  • Section 59, Criminal Law. Abduction of male or female person. A person who takes away by force, or detains against his/her will, any other person with intent to marry or have sexual intercourse with that person, or with intent to cause that person to be married or have sexual intercourse with a third person, is guilty of this offence. The maximum penalty is 14 years’ imprisonment for a basic offence and 18 years’ imprisonment for an aggravated offence.
  • Section 60, Criminal Law. Procuring sexual intercourse. Any person who by threats of intimidation, false pretences, false representations or other fraudulent means procures any person to have sexual intercourse is guilty of an offence. The maximum sentence for a basic offence is seven years’ imprisonment and the maximum sentence for an aggravated offence is 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 61, Criminal Law. Household etc. not to permit unlawful sexual intercourse on premises. Any person who owns, occupies or manages a premises who induces or knowingly suffers any person under 17 years old to resort to or be in those premises for the purpose of having sexual intercourse shall be guilty of an offense liable to at most seven years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 68, Criminal Law. Use of children in commercial sexual services. A person is guilty of this crime if he/she employs, engages, causes or permits a child to provide, or continue to provide, commercial sexual services. The maximum penalty if the child is under 14 years old is life imprisonment, but is nine years’ imprisonment in any other case. This law also states the crime of asking a child to provide commercial sexual services. The maximum penalty is nine years if the child is under 14 years old, and is otherwise three years’ imprisonment. It is also a crime to have an arrangement with a child who provides commercial sexual services under which the person regularly receives the proceeds or a share in the proceeds of the sexual services provided by the child, or to exploit a child by obtaining money known to be the proceeds of commercial sexual services provided by the child. The maximum penalty is five years’ imprisonment if the child is under 14 years old, and in any other case is two years’ imprisonment. In proceedings for an offence against this section it is not necessary for the prosecution to establish that the defendant knew the victim was a child, but is is a defence to prove that the defendant reasonably believed the victim was 18 years old or older.
  • Section 80, Criminal Law. Abduction of a child under 16 years old. This section states that any person who (a) unlawfully leads, takes, decoys or entices away, or detains, any child under 16 years old; or (b) harbors or receives any such child knowing him/her to have been taken by one of above methods with intent to (c) deprive a parent or guardian of possession of the child, or (d) steal an article on the person of the child is liable to up to seven years’ imprisonment. Any person who unlawfully takes, or causes to be taken, a child under 16 out of the possession and against the will of the parent or guardian with lawful care of the child is liable to up to two years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 86E, Criminal Law. Use of a computer with intention to commit, or facilitate the commission of, an offence. This section states that a person who uses a computer to cause unauthorized access to or modification of computer data, or an authorized impairment of electronic communication, and knows that the action is unauthorized and intends to facilitate or commit the commission of a serious offence is guilty of this crime. The maximum penalty is the maximum penalty for an attempt to commit the principal offence.
  • Section 86F, Criminal Law. Use of computer to commit, or facilitate the commission of, an offence outside the State. This section states that a person who uses a computer in South Australia to cause unauthorized access to or modification of computer data or an unauthorized impairment of electronic communication, and knows that the action is unauthorized, and intends to commit or facilitate the commission of a prohibited act in another jurisdiction is guilty of this offence. The maximum penalty is the maximum penalty under South Australian law for an attempt to commit the prohibited act in South Australia.
  • Section 86G, Criminal Law. Unauthorised modification of computer data. A person who (a) causes an unauthorised modification of computer data; and (b) knows the modification is unauthorised; and (c) intends to cause harm or inconvenience by impairing access to, or by impairing the reliability, security or operation of computer data, or is reckless to whether such harm will ensue, is guilty of this offence. The maximum penalty is 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 86H, Criminal Law. Unauthorised impairment of electronic commission. A person who (a) causes an unauthorised impairment of electronic communication; and (b) knows the impairment is unauthorised; (c) intends by that impairment, to cause harm or inconvenience, or is reckless to whether harm or inconvenience will ensue is guilty of an offence. The maximum penalty is 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 86I, Criminal Law. Possession of computer viruses etc with intent to commit serious computer offence. A person is guilty of this offence if he/she (a) produces, supplies or obtains proscribed data or a proscribed object; or (b) is in possession or control of proscribed data or a proscribed object with the intention of committing or facilitating the commission of a serious computer offence. The maximum penalty is three years’ imprisonment.

2004 – The Criminal Law Consolidation (Child Pornography) Amendment Act 2004 was passed. The law made production or dissemination of child pornography, possession of child pornography, and procuring a child to commit an indecent act criminal offences. Disseminating child pornography includes making it available to another through use of a computer. Material included under this section includes any photographic, electronic or other information or data from which an image or representation may be produced or reproduced.

A person who (a) produces, or takes any step in the production of, child exploitation material knowing its pornographic nature, or (b) disseminates, or takes any step in the dissemination of, child exploitation material knowing of its pornographic nature, is guilty of a crime. The maximum penalty for a basic offence is 10 years’ imprisonment; the maximum penalty for an aggravated offence is 12 years’ imprisonment.

A person who possesses child exploitation material knowing its pornographic nature, or intends to obtain, obtains, or works towards obtaining access to child exploitation material is guilty of a crime. The maximum penalty for a first offence is five years’ imprisonment for a basic offence and seven years’ imprisonment for an aggravated offence. For subsequent offences, the maximum penalty is seven years’ imprisonment for a basic offence and 10 years’ imprisonment for an aggravated offence. It is a defence to prove that the material in the defendant’s possession was unsolicited and that the defendant took immediate and reasonable steps to destroy it.

A person who incites or procures the commission of an indecent act by a child under the prescribed age in relation to that person or acting for a prurient purpose either (a) causes or induces a child under the prescribed age to expose any part of his/her body, or (b) makes a photographic, electronic or other record from which the images of a child under 17 years old engaged in a private act may be reproduced is guilty of a crime. The maximum penalty for a basic offence is 10 years’ imprisonment; the maximum penalty for an aggravated offence is 12 years’ imprisonment. This law applies whether or not the acts occur in private or public, or occur with the child or the child’s parent’s consent. A person who (a) procures a child under the prescribed age to make communication with the intention of procuring a child to engage in or submit to sexual activity, or (b) makes a communication for a prurient purpose with the intention of making a child amenable to sexual activity is guilty of an offence. The maximum penalty is 10 years’ imprisonment for a basic offence and 12 years’ imprisonment for an aggravated offence. Except where the defendant was in a position of authority over the child, it is a defence to prove that the child was 16 or older on the date of the offence, and the accused was under 17 years old or reasonably believed that the child was 17 or older.