Australia

Population

23,860,100

Population 0‑14

19.0%

Internet Users

93.1%

Facebook Users

14,000,000

Mobile Subscribers

30,500,000
* Statistics provided by CIA.gov, Internet World Stats and GSMA Intellligence

1999 – All State, Territory and Australian Government Education Ministers agreed to The National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century (National Goals), which guided schools and education authorities to develop students’ knowledge, understanding, skills and values for participation in an educated, just and open society.

2003 – The original National Safe Schools Framework was established. Based on a 2002 evaluation of school safety and student wellbeing policies in place throughout the country, the Framework created a uniform national approach to help schools and communities address bullying, harassment, violence, and child abuse and neglect.

2005 – The original National Assessment Program Information and Communications Technology Literacy Report was released. The report established an ICT literacy scale to measure and compare the achievements of Year 6 and 10 students nationally. 49 percent of Year 6 students and 61 percent of Year 10 students were proficient in ICT literacy.

2007 – The Australian Labour Party published%22) a position paper titled, “The Australian Economy Needs an Education Revolution” which set into motion an education plan aimed at boosting the economy when the party was elected into power.

2008 – The Melbourne Declaration on the Educational Goals for Young Australians was issued by Ministerial Council on Education, Employment Training and Youth Affairs. The document recognizes young people’s need for ICT skills in order to be successful in the digital age.

As part of the Digital Education Revolution plan, the Australian Government pledged $100 million to support the Fibre Connections to Schools Initiative. The Initiative aimed to support the deployment of high-speed broadband to Australian schools, recognising the value of the Internet in improving educational opportunities.

The same year, as part of the Building the Education Revolution (BER) program, the Australian Government committed $16.2 billion in funding over four years to provide new facilities and refurbishments in Australian schools to meet the needs of twenty-first century students and teachers. The plan was part of a larger economic stimulus package.

The same year, the Joint Ministerial Statement on Information and Communications Technologies in Australian Education and Training, 2008-2011, was released. In the statement, the education ministers agreed to collaborate nationally to share resources and expertise, and to leverage existing initiatives while recognising the importance of innovation and experimentation. They also committed to foster the use of ICT in education by developing teachers’ capabilities, improving access to ICT equipment, making available secure and dependable infrastructure, promoting the sharing of information among institutions and making online learning resources affordable.

The 2008 National Assessment Program Information and Communications Technology Literacy Report found that 57 percent of Year 6 students and 66 percent of Year 10 students were proficient in ICT literacy. This was a significant increase in the scores of Year 6 students compared to 2005 data, but not a significant change for Year 10 students.

2009 – The Australian Communications and Media Authority rolled out an accredited Cybersafety Outreach Professional Development for Educators program. Topics include how children use technology, digital literacy, cyberbullying, identity protection and the legal responsibility of schools to minimise risk.

Also in 2009, the Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy’s Digital Regions Initiative funded digital enablement applications to improve education and health services across Australia. The project ran until 2014 and aimed to improve educational opportunities.

2010 – A revised National Safe Schools Framework was endorsed by all ministers for education, with the goal of ensuring safe, supportive school communities. The following nine elements comprise the framework: leadership commitment to a safe school, a supportive and connected school culture, policies and procedures, professional learning, positive behaviour management, engagement and a safe school curriculum, a focus on student wellbeing and ownership, early intervention and target support, and partnerships with families and the community.

As of 2010, the Australian Government had committed $2.2 billion to implementing the Digital Education Revolution (DER). As part of DER, the Government provided funding to ensure all Australian secondary schools can reach a computer to student ratio of 1:1 by the end of 2011.

2011 – An implementation roadmap for the Digital Education Revolution was released by the Australian Information and Communications Technology in Education Committee.

The 2011 National Assessment Program Information and Communications Technology Literacy Report was published, finding that 62 percent of Year 6 students and 65 percent of Year 10 students were proficient in ICT literacy. This was an improvement over 2005 and 2008 ICT literacy rates for Year 6 students, but not a significant change for Year 10 students.

2012 – The $14.1 million Primary Schools for the 21st Century component of BER was completed. The plan provided new and refurbished halls, libraries and classrooms in primary schools.

The same year, ICT in Everyday Learning – Teacher Online Toolkit became available to all Australian teachers. The project was led by the Education Services Australia and was a component of the Digital Education Revolution program. The toolkit aims to improve teachers’ ability to incorporate technology into teaching and learning, providing access to online professional learning and local support to implement changes to their teaching approaches.

2013 – The Safe Schools Hub was created to support schools in implementing the Framework. The Hub provides teachers, school leaders, students, parents and specialist professionals with a range of safe school strategies and resources to promote school safety.

2014 – The National Assessment Program Information and Communications Technology Literacy Report found that only 55 percent of Year 6 students and 52 percent of Year 10 students were proficient in ICT literacy. According to the report, there was a significant decline in Australian students’ ICT literacy performance compared to that in 2011.

2015 – Curricula for technology learning areas were released, setting learning goals by grade level bands. Under the Design and Technologies subsection, students are to use design and technology thinking to create solutions, and to fulfill Digital Technologies requirements, students are to use computational thinking and information systems to define, design and implement digital solutions.

Additionally, standards for learning how to appropriately use ICT were set by grade level band. Students are to develop skills in the following areas: applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT, investigating using ICT, creating using ICT, communicating through ICT, and managing and operating ICT.

2016 – The federal government committed $6.9 million to the University of Adelaide to expand a program aimed at closing the digital divide for disadvantaged students. The funding will provide access to an online course for teachers of the most vulnerable Australians, equipping them with the skills and confidence needed to embrace the use of ICT in the classroom.

In mid-2016, the Digital Technologies Hub will launch. The Hub is a website and set of resources that will support Australian primary and secondary teachers, students and school communities as they engage with the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies.

1800 Respect

This organization provides professional crisis and trauma counselling both online and by telephone 24/7 to assist people experiencing the effects of sexual assault, domestic violence or family violence.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Healing Foundation

This organisation for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders focuses on building culturally-strong, community-led healing solutions. It supports children, young people and their families to improve their social and emotional wellbeing with this goal in mind.

Alannah and Madeline Foundation

The foundation aims to support children who have experienced or witnessed violence, prevent violence among young people, and advocate for children’s right to be safe from violence and bullying. Among several programs is its eSmart initiative, which works to increase online safety and reduce cyberbullying in Australia.

Australian Centre for Child Protection

This research centre within the University of South Australia aims to expand the Australian knowledge base about the impact of risk factors on children and families and address these risks within their social contexts. It provides policy advice and professional education, in addition to advocacy work and partnerships with government and community social service agencies.

Australian Centre for Social Innovation

This organisation works to address inequities in Australian society by engaging directly with the communities it serves. It works on issues related to families, children and child protection.

Australian Childhood Foundation

This organization aims to help children heal from abuse and neglect, promote stable relationships for children, advocate for children’s needs, and educate communities to safeguard children. Its Smart Schools initiative provides free online training, resources and support to education professionals to give them the skills and confidence to work with vulnerable students.

Australian Childhood Trauma (ACT) Group

The organization provides support services and trainings to individuals, schools, and government and nongovernment agencies regarding childhood trauma and abuse.

Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)

The ACMA is the independent statutory body that ensures the effective and efficient regulation, legislation and codes of practice for the communications sector. This includes telecommunications, broadcasting, radio and the Internet. It provides online safety and data privacy tips for citizens.

Australian Computer Society

The professional association for Australia’s ICT sector, this organisation has branches throughout the country.

Australian Council for Computers in Education

The ACCE is the professional association for those involved in using ICT in educational settings. This includes educators who teach computer- or technology-related subjects and those who use ICT to improve student learning outcomes.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA)

ACARA is the independent authority tasked with implementing the Australian Curriculum, running the National Assessment Program and publishing information on school performance on the My School website.

Australian Cybercrime Online Reporting Network (ACORN)

ACORN is a national policing initiative to combat cybercrime in Australia. It includes an online system to report instances of cybercrime and provides information on cybercrime for Australians with a focus on protection and prevention.

Australian Federal Police

Among other policing responsibilities, the AFP investigates crimes of online child sexual exploitation, child sex tourism, child abuse and cybercrime. It works with law enforcement agencies across Australia, as well as international agencies, government departments, industry and nonprofits to prevent and prosecute such crimes.

Australian Human Rights Commission

The commission focuses on a breadth of human rights issues in Australia. Among these are children’s rights, including the issues of child sexual abuse. The commission’s Back Me Up campaign advocates for bystander intervention in youth cyberbullying situations.

Australian Institute of Criminology

This institute conducts research on crime and justice in Australia with the goal of reducing crime and promoting justice by informing policy and law enforcement practice. Areas of focus include online victimization, cybercrime, illegal internet content and sexual assault.

Australian Institute of Family Studies

The institute provides reports, guidelines and information on a range of topics relating to families. Topics include child abuse, cyberbullying, online safety, at-risk children, young people and the working with children check.

Australian Internet Security Initiative (AISI)

This ACMA program aims to help reduce malware infections and Internet service vulnerabilities in Australia. As of 2015, 146 Australian internet providers voluntarily participated in the initiative to protect their customers from cybersecurity threats.

Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY)

This organization works to develop solutions to issues affecting the health, development and wellbeing of young Australians. One of its initiatives, the Student Wellbeing Action Network (SWAN), partners with Wellbeing Australia to include the experience and opinions of students in developing programs to reduce bullying, improve teacher wellbeing, enhance students’ voices and better educational outcomes for students.

Australian Youth Affairs Coalition

This nongovernmental organization focuses on Australians ages 12-25, with the goal of improving youth participation, work and justice.

Blue Knot Foundation

Formerly known as Adults Surviving Child Abuse, the foundation works to improve the lives of Australian adults who experienced trauma and abuse as children. It provides phone counselling, information, resources and tools to survivors and their supporters, as well as education and training for health care providers, legal practitioners and organisations working with survivors.

Blue Light

This program aims to help police work with young people to prevent crime and victimisation, by providing an integrated and proactive youth service.

Bravehearts

This organization aims to empower, educate and protect children from sexual assault. It works to raise awareness, provide support services, develop prevention strategies and improve public policy to fulfil its mission. Bravehearts has online forms for young people to report online abuse and for adult survivors of childhood sexual assault to disclose their experiences.

Bullying. No Way!

This online resource was developed by the Safe and Supportive School Communities Working Group and focuses on addressing and reducing bullying behavior, including cyberbullying. Information is geared toward teachers, parents, and students by age group.

Child and Family Welfare Association of Australia

The association represents non-governmental organisations working with children and youth, and their families, where abuse and neglect are factors determining the need for care.

Child Aware

The goal is this organisation is to embed and promote approaches that promote child wellbeing, and address risk factors for child abuse and neglect, across organisations, communities, businesses and governments.

Child Family Community Australia

CFCA conducts and publishes original research on topics related to children, the family and community welfare organizations. Topics include cyberbullying, child abuse, online safety, young people and at-risk children.

Child Health Promotion Research Centre

This research centre within Edith Cowan University promotes the health of children and young people by engaging and partnering with families, schools and communities. Among its research areas is mental health and, specifically, cyberbullying. It received funding from the Public Education Endowment Trust to run the Cyber Strong Schools project, which aims to help develop sustainable approaches to build the capacity of school staff in supporting students to function safely and positively as digital citizens.

Child Wise

This nonprofit focuses on preventing child abuse and exploitation through advocacy, training, safety certifications and counselling. Its website provides a searchable directory of support services, as well as resources for parents on cybersafety. It is the Australian representative of ECPAT International.

Cyber Strong Schools

This online project presents learning modules around the following themes: developing personal knowledge, whole school policy, professional conduct, teaching and learning, and student cyber leaders.

Daniel Morcombe Foundation

This national foundation focuses on educating children on personal safety, for both online and physical environments. It directly assists educators and parents by funding and developing child safety education resources, helps young victims of crime and aims to make all Australian communities safer for children. Its Day for Daniel campaign promotes child safety initiatives and provides free educational materials on preventing crimes against children.

Department of Communication and the Arts

This department advises the government on communications, developing policy, advice and initiatives to use digital technology and communications services to their full potential.

Education Services Australia (ESA)

ESA is a national, nonprofit company owned collectively by all Australian education ministers. It facilitates the sharing and distribution of knowledge, resources and services to promote e-learning, and creates ICT-based solutions to support schools, among other tasks.

Emerging Minds

This organization is dedicated to advancing the mental health and emotional wellbeing of Australian children and young people, and their families. It develops policies, services, interventions, trainings and resources to this end.

Friendly Schools

This anti-bullying initiative for schools is research-based and was designed to align with the Australian Curriculum and the National Safe Schools Framework. Its website has information for parents, teachers, students, as well as cyberbullying support.

Good Beginnings Australia

This organisation’s programs offer services throughout Australia that focus on early intervention and practical parenting programs in disadvantaged communities.

Headspace

Headspace is the National Youth Mental Health Foundation. It provides early intervention mental health services and counselling to young people ages 12 to 25 in centres, online and over the phone.

Hitnet

This company produces educational media for marginalised populations with limited technological opportunities. It places touchscreen kiosks in remote areas of Australia to deliver information on public health issues in engaging ways.

Internet Governance Forum

The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.

INTERPOL

INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.

Kids Helpline

Kids Helpline is Australia’s free, confidential phone and online counselling service for young people ages 5 to 25. Issues discussed on its website include cyberbullying, safe social networking, sexting and mental health.

Kids Matter

This initiative focuses on mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention services in primary schools and early childhood education centres. Its website provides resources for families, and health and community professionals regarding children’s mental health and development.

Lawstuff

This website provides information on relevant laws for children and young people in Australia. Laws are available by state and include cyberbullying, sexting, cybersafety, child abuse and sexual assault provisions in easy-to-understand language.

Life Education

Life Education is an independent health and drug preventive education provider, with programs geared toward children ages 5-13.

National Association for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (NAPCAN)

NAPCAN promotes the safety and wellbeing of Australian children and youth by fostering awareness of child abuse and neglect, and by developing prevention strategies. Among its initiatives are Growing Respect, which focuses on healthy relationships in preschools, primary schools and high schools, and Love Bites, which aims to prevent sexual assault and family violence among older teenagers.

National Centre Against Bullying (NCAB)

NCAB works with advocates for children’s right to lives free of violence and bullying. Its website provides advice to parents, schools and kids on dealing with bullying behaviors. The Centre aims to provide national leadership in addressing bullying, raise awareness and change attitudes about bullying, encourage the use of best practices in this field.

National Digital Learning Resources Network (NDLRN)

The NDLRN is a resource collection, delivery infrastructure and metadata standards system. It has been collaboratively developed and is jointly owned by all Australian school education jurisdictions.

National ICT Australia (NICTA)

NICTA is Australia’s largest organisation dedicated to ICT research. Its primary goal is to conduct industry research that ultimately creates wealth and positive social impacts for Australia.

Office of the Children’s eSafety Commissioner

The office aims to guide children and young people toward safe online experiences by encouraging responsible behavior. Its website provides reporting mechanisms for cyberbullying, and inappropriate or illegal content, as well as educational information and a cybersafety help button. Guidelines are available for parents on talking to their children about the risks of online grooming, cyberbullying, excessive online use and inappropriate content. Educational, interactive lessons on cybersafety include Cybersmart Access, Cybersmart Detectives, Budd:e, #GameOn and Zippep’s Astro Circus.

One Laptop per Child (OLPC)

A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.

Pathways to Resilience

This charitable organisation was established in 2007 to build resilience in vulnerable families and communities by promoting social and emotional wellbeing. It does this by providing training workshops for children, educators, parents and professionals.

Peer Support Australia

This program provides schools with a research-based approach for enhancing the young people’s wellbeing. This includes training and professional development for teachers and parents, student leadership training and resources, and peer-led experiential learning modules focused on key issues like bullying.

Positive Schools

This mental health and wellbeing initiative is a partnership between Australia and the United Kingdom. It aims to provide solutions to improve the mental health, wellbeing and education of young people.

Raising Children Network

This online parenting resource offers information on every stage of raising children – from pregnancy to parenting teenagers. Safety concerns are discussed for parents of children, and technology usage and education are discussed for parents of pre-teens and teenagers.

ReachOut.com

This online and phone counselling service is designed to support the mental health of young people. Topics highlighted on its website include education, relationships, cyberbullying, sexual assault and childhood abuse.

Relationships Australia

This nonprofit organisation promotes healthy, respectful relationships in Australia through counselling, education and community support. Its website provides information and safety tips for online relationships, relationship violence, and becoming a parent.

Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse

In 2013, the commission was created by the Prime Minister to investigate management and responses to allegations of child sexual abuse within Australian institutions, such as schools, churches and government organisations. To this end, it conducts public hearings, does research and proposes policy changes.

Safe and Well Online

This research project brings together University of South Australia, University of Western Sydney, Queensland University of Technology and Zuni to develop and evaluate an online social marketing framework to promote behavior changes towards cybersafety and wellness among young people.

Save the Children Australia

In Australia, Save the Children focuses on education, early child care, youth engagement and child protection programs for remote and disadvantaged communities.

SiMERR

This research centre is part of the University of New England. It works with rural and regional communities to improve education for students in the fields of ICT, science and mathematics.

Stay Smart Online

This website focuses on online safety and security, and provides information on keeping personal and financial information safe online. It has an alert service for online threats as well as specialised information for youth.

Telstra

Telstra, Australia’s largest telecommunications and media company, provides tips for family cybersafety on its website. It recommends a two-pronged approach of parental involvement and setting ground rules for children.

The Line

This campaign discusses relationships, gender, sex, sexting and online abuse, with an emphasis on respectful behavior and healthy relationships. It is aimed at youth ages 12 to 20 and is funded by the Australian Government Department of Social Services.

ThinkUKnow

ThinkUKnow is an internet safety program, with interactive websites for parents, carers and teachers, and for young people ages 11-17. Trained Australian Federal Police officers and Microsoft volunteers deliver presentations on cyber safety, with a focus on how young people use technology and how to help them use it safely and ethically.

Virtual Global Taskforce (VGT)

This international partnership was formed in 2003 by law enforcement agencies, NGOs and industry leaders. It aims to protect children from online sexual abuse, with the objectives of making the Internet safer, locating and helping at-risk children and holding perpetrators to account.

Wellbeing Australia

This nonprofit is a network of people and organizations working to develop healthy relationships, particularly within the education environment. The group focuses on teachers, students, families and the community at-large.

Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre

This Australia-based international research centre explores the role of technology in young people’s lives and examines how technology may be used to improve the mental health of those ages 12 to 25.

A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Specialist Police Investigative Units in Responding to Child Sexual Abuse (2016)

N. Westera, E. Darwinkel, M. Powell

The report aims to critically evaluate the efficacy of specialist police investigative units compared to traditional responses and what features of specialist units might determine their effectiveness.

Aussie Kids and Teens Online (2016)

ACMA

This report sheds light on how young people are engaging online, the devices they use and the services and activities that draw them online in Australia.

The Use and Effectiveness of Restorative Justice in Criminal Justice Systems Following Child Sexual Abuse or Comparable Harms (2016)

J. Bolitho, K. Freeman

This international literature review examines research on the use, justification and effectiveness of restorative justice approaches in relation to child sexual abuse, and any problems or concerns arising, particularly in relation to institutional and non-familial child sexual abuse.

The Realities of Cyber Parenting: What Pre-teens and Teens Are Up To Online (2015)

Family Online Safety Institute and Intel Security

This global study examined the online behaviors and social networking habits of pre-teens and teens aged between 8 and 16 years old, as well as looking at the concerns of parents.

Child sexual exploitation: a study of international comparisons (2015)

Cameron, G., Sayer, E. M., Thomson, L., and Wilson, S

The report focuses on the issue of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) in high income countries, including Sweden, Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA.

The Cost of Unresolved Childhood Trauma and Abuse in Adults in Australia (2015)

C. Kezelman, N. Hossack, P. Stavropoulos, P. Burley

This report estimates the cost of failure to address the needs of adult survivors of childhood trauma and abuse in Australia.

The Influence of the Home Learning Environment on Middle School Students’ Use of ICT at School (2015)

D. Pullen

This study found that technology usefulness and ease of use are key dimensions of students’ attitudes and acceptance towards ICT usage in both the home and school.

Young Children and Screen Time: Creating a Mindful Approach to Digital Technology (2015)

M.M. Neumann

This study examined the home digital environment of Australian parents and their children ages 2 to 4.

Working With Children Checks Report (2015)

Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse

The report advocates for implementing a working with children check system at the national level, among other recommendations.

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs for Pre-schoolers: A Synthesis of Current Evidence (2015)

C. Pitts

This evidence review aims to determine the efficacy of pre-school child sexual abuse prevention programs.

Development of an Online Well-Being Intervention for Young People: An Evaluation Protocol (2015)

G. Antezana, N. Bidargaddi, V. Blake, G. Schrader, B. Kaambwa, S. Quinn, S. Orlowski, M. Winsall, M. Battersby

This study assesses the effectiveness of a website called the “Online Wellbeing Centre (OWC),” designed to support and improve of mental health and wellbeing in young Australians ages 16 to 25.

Sentencing for Child Sexual Abuse in Institutional Contexts (2015)

A. Freiberg, H. Donnelly, K. Gelb

This report examines sentencing law and practice, the principles of sentencing, sentencing standards and the range of non-sentencing statutory measures available to detain child sex offenders in custody, as well as restrictions and monitoring of their movement.

Testing for Response Shift Bias in Evaluations of School Antibullying Programs (2015)

T. Shaw, D. Cross, S.R. Zubrick

The study found that students' understandings of bullying behavior remained stable over time.

Hear No Evil, See No Evil: Understanding Failure to Identify and Report Child Sexual Abuse in Institutional Contexts (2015)

E. Munro, S. Fish

This report aims to provide speculative findings on individual and organisational factors that contributed to the failure to protect children in a timely and effective way in institutions.

Conceptualising the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse (2015)

A. Quadara, V. Nagy, D. Higgins, N. Siegel

This report identifies the challenges of preventing child sexual abuse, presents a conceptual mapping of dynamics associated with child sexual abuse and sexual exploitation, and outlines key directions that could be taken to strengthen prevention.

Cyberbullying, Help-seeking and Mental Health in Young Australians: Implications for Public Health (2015)

B.A. Spears, C.M. Taddeo, A.L. Daly, A. Stretton, L.T. Karklins

The study examined the relationship between young Australians’ cyberbullying experiences, their help-seeking practices and associated mental well-being and social connectedness, with a view toward informing national health and wellbeing agendas.

Playing Alone, Playing With Others: Differences in Player Experience and Indicators of Wellbeing (2015)

K. Vella, D. Johnson, L. Hides

This survey-based study indicates that social and solitary video game players differ in terms of degree of autonomy, presence and relatedness experienced, while the different types of social play are associated with differences in relatedness and social capital experienced.

Global Research Project: A Global Landscape of Hotlines Combating Child Sexual Abuse Material on the Internet and an Assessment of Shared Challenges (2015)

Melissa Stroebe, Stacy Jeleniewski, PhD

This report examines hotlines combating Internet-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse Material.

Online Peer-to-Peer Support for Young People With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review (2015)

K. Ali, L. Farrer, A. Gulliver, K.M. Griffiths

This systematic review identified an overall lack of high-quality studies examining online peer-to-peer support for young people.

Gender, Age and the Perceived Causes, Nature and Extent of Domestic and Dating Violence in Australian Society (2015)

J. Cale, J. Breckenridge

This study examined the perceptions and attitudes of young Australian adults toward domestic violence and dating violence, finding that respondents did not typically hold views supporting gender stereotypes and violence.

Gender, Education and the Perceived Causes, Nature and Extent of Domestic and Dating Violence in Australian Society (2015)

J. Cale, J. Breckenridge

This study found that overall, young Australian adults did not typically hold views supporting gender stereotypes and violence, but depending on the gender and current educational status of respondents different patterns emerged among those who did have views supoorting stereotypes and violence.

A Report on the Evaluation of the Safe Schools Hub (2015)

C.M. Taddeo, B.A. Spears, L-A. Ey, D. Green, D.A. Price, T. Carslake, G. Cox

This study found that, generally, the availability and access to a website that promotes safe schools and student wellbeing while catering for a diverse range of education stakeholders is strongly supported and very much required.

Keep It Tame: Promoting Respect Online (2015)

B. Spears, C. Taddeo, A. Barnes, M. Scrimgeour, P. Collin, J. Drennan, M. Razzell

This study evaluates the design, engagement and impact of a social marketing approach aimed at 12 to 18 year olds.

Child Sexual Explitation: A study of International Comparison (2015)

The Virtual Staff College

This report presents a rapid desk review of international comparisons of CSE.

Youth Exposure to, and Management of Cyberbullying in Australia (2014)

I. Katz, M. Keeley, B. Spears, C. Taddeo, T. Swirski, S. Bates

This research aims to summarise and appraise the existing empirical evidence on youth cyberbullying and expand upon it.

Youth Awareness of Cyberbullying as a Criminal Offence (2014)

B. Tan, F. Pedic

This report presents quantitative and qualitiative research on youth awareness of the criminality of cyberbullying.

Estimates of Cyberbullying Incidents Dealt with by Australian Schools (2014)

IRIS Research

This study provides an estimate of the prevalence of cyber-bullying reported in Australian schools and identifies methods used by schools to deal with cyberbullying behaviours.

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)

UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics

A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia

Historical Review of Sexual Offence and Child Sexual Abuse Legislation in Australia: 1788–2013 (2014)

H. Boxall, A.M. Tomison, S. Hulme

The report reviews the sociopolitical factors linked to the development of Australia's understanding of child sexual abuse and provides an overview on relevant laws in each of Australia's states.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (2014)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Children’s Rights in the Digital Age (2014)

A. Third, D. Bellerose, U. Dawkins, E. Keltie, K. Pihl

This study found unequal access to digital media among youth from 16 countries, among other key findings on children's digital usage.

Child Exploitation Material in the Context of Institutional Child Sexual Abuse (2014)

J. Prichard, C. Spiranovic

The report explains the relevance of child pornography to institutional child sexual abuse.

Scoping Review: Evaluations of Out-of-home Care Practice Elements that Aim to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse (2014)

S. South, A. Shlonsky, R. Mildon

This review aims to map evaluations of out-of-home care practice elements that aim to prevent child sexual abuse.

Digital Technologies in the Australian Curriculum (2014)

J. Zagami

This paper makes recommendations for ICT usage and education in Australian schools.

Research on Youth Exposure to, and Management of, Cyber-bullying Incidents in Australia: Synthesis Report (2014)

I. Katz, M. Keeley, B. Spears, C. Taddeo, T. Swirski, S. Bates

The research aims to provide the Australian Government with information to inform the possibility of creating a new cyberbullying offence and civil enforcement regime.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI) (2013)

Microsoft

The survey, Computing Safety Index, measures the steps people report taking to protect their computers, mobile phones, and info online in the categories of foundational, technical and behavioral.

Microsoft Computing Safety Index (MCSI). (2013)

Microsoft

This annual survey of more than 10,000 adults in 20 countries around the world creates the data for the MCSI, which measures the actions that consumers take to help keep themselves and their families safe online.

Teachers' Knowledge and Confidence for Promoting Positive Mental Health in Primary School Communities (2013)

H. Askell-Williams, M.J. Lawson

This paper reports an investigation into Australian primary school teachers’ knowledge and confidence for mental health promotion, finding that teachers relied heavily on curriculum resources.

The Forms of Bullying Scale (FBS): Validity and Reliability Estimates for a Measure of Bullying Victimization and Perpetration in Adolescence (2013)

D. Cross, T. Shaw, J.J. Dooley, S. Waters, S.R. Zubrick

This study measured bullying perpetration and victimization.

Report on Young People and Sexting in Australia (2013)

K. Albury, K. Crawford, P. Byron, B. Mathews

The report presents qualitative research on young people’s understandings of, and responses to, current Australian laws, media and educational resources on sexting.

Digital Literacy and E-skills: Participation in a Digital Economy (2013)

M. Bowles

This report identifies existing and new skill sets and competencies fundamental to digital literacy.

Bullying, Young People and the Law Symposium (2013)

National Centre Against Bullying

This symposium recommended that Australia adopt a four-tier approach to addressing bullying, including cyberbullying.

Dimensions of Digital Media Literacy and the Relationship to Social Exclusion (2012)

S. Park

This paper conceptualises digital media literacy as a multi-dimensional concept by differentiating media content from media device and relates social exclusion to digital media literacy.

Report on risks faced by children online and policies to protect them (2012)

Kristina Irion

The report provides key findings and policy recommendations to keep children safe online as a follow up to the 2008 Seoul Ministerial Declaration on the Future of the Internet Economy.

‘The 3 Piers’ to Prevention: Educate, Empower, Protect (2012)

H. Johnston, C. Ronken

The report is a culmination of 15 years of research into how to reduce the incidence and prevent the occurrence of child sexual assault across Australia.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Worldwide Online Bullying Survey. (2012)

Microsoft

This survey explored children’s experience of online bullying in 25 countries across the globe.

Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Offending and Victimisation: A 45 year Follow-up Study (2012)

J.R.P. Ogloff, M.C. Cutajar, E. Mann, P. Mullen

This report highlights the need for therapeutic interventions targeted at adolescent male child sexual abuse victims, particularly with regard to offender treatment programs, where many programs currently do not allow for exploration of offenders’ own sexual victimisation.

Parental Involvement in Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying (2012)

E. Robinson

This paper outlines definitions and statistics related to cyberbullying, differences between cyberbullying and offline bullying, and parents' roles and involvement in preventing and responding to cyberbullying incidents.

Global Monitoring: Status of Action Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Australia (2012)

J. Nguyen

This report provides a comprehensive baseline of information on all manifestations of commercial child sexual exploitation in Australia, and assesses achievements and challenges in implementing counteractions to eliminate the crime.

School-based Strategies to Address Cyberbullying (2011)

D. Cross, H. Monks, M. Campbell, B. Spears, P. Slee

The paper provides an overview of the implications of cyberbullying on young people and strategies in place to combat it.

Misperceptions About Child Sex Offenders (2011)

K. Richards

This paper addresses common misperceptions about child sex offenders, including whether all child sex offenders are ‘paedophiles’, who sexually abuse children, whether most child sex offenders were victims of sexual abuse themselves, rates of recidivism among child sex offenders and the number of children sex offenders typically abuse before they are detected by police.

High-Wire Act: Cyber-safety and the Young (2011)

Joint Select Committee on Cyber-Safety

The report provides an overview of current cybersafety concerns, outlines the roles of current stakeholders, and describes the Committee’s concerns with educational strategies, law enforcement issues and cybersafety approaches.

Safety and Security on the Internet Challenges and Advances in Member States (2011)

World Health Organization

Evaluation of public health threat presented by the Internet in every Member States.

Online Child Sexual Abuse Content: The Development of a Comprehensive, Transferable International Internet Notice and Takedown System (2011)

Internet Watch Foundation

Report analyzes the legislative frame in that regulates inlines child sexual abuse content.

Too Much? Too Young? The Sexualisation of Children Debate in Australia (2010)

C. Lumby, K. Albury

This article considers the origins and focus of Australian debates around the alleged ‘sexualisation’ of children and young people.

Online Interactions Involving Suspected Paedophiles Who Engage Male Children (2010)

A. Grosskopf

This paper summarises the results of a small-scale study into the online interactions of suspected paedophiles with undercover Australian police officers posing as male children.

Bullying in School and Cyberspace: Associations with Depressive Symptoms in Swiss and Australian Adolescents (2010)

S. Perren, D. Cross, J. Dooley, T. Shaw

The study found that cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

Sexting and the Law: How Australia Regulates Electronic Communication of Non-Professional Sexual Content (2010)

D. Svantesson

This article describes sexting as a four-step process and identifies the laws governing sexting.

2010 Norton Online Family Report (2010)

Norton by Symantec

The report reveals how children are spending more time online and have had more negative online experiences than parents realize. It highlights different approaches taken by families globally and uncovers the emotional impact of children’s negative online experiences.

Protecting Children is Everyone's Business: National Framework for Protecting Australia’s Children 2009–2020 (2009)

Commonwealth of Australia

This publication looks in detail at the need for the Commonwealth, State and Territory governments and non-government organisations to work together to protect Australia’s children.

Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study (2009)

D. Cross, T. Shaw, L. Hearn, M. Epstein, H. Monks, L. Lester, L. Thomas

This report examines covert bullying among school-age children, with the ultimate goal of identifying feasible, effective and sustainable policy and practice to address this phenomenon.

Young People and Technology: A Review of the Current Literature (2009)

H. McGrath

The report reviews prior research on young people's uses of technology.

Responding to Online Child Sexual Grooming: An Industry Perspective (2009)

K-K. R. Choo

This paper discusses non-legislative measures to address the issue of online child exploitation, particularly child grooming.

Online Child Grooming: A Literature Review on the Misuse of Social Networking Sites for Grooming Children for Sexual Offences (2009)

K-K. R. Choo

This report describes the nature and extent of how new technologies are being exploited by offenders for online child-grooming, and the legislative and non-legislative responses being used to combat it.

Audit of Australian Digital Media Literacy Programs (2009)

Australian Communications and Media Authority

This report reviews existing policies and programs to enhance digital media literacy in Australia.

Homer versus Homer: Digital Media, Literacy and Child Protection (2008)

C. Lumby, K. Albury

This article provides an overview of progressive approaches to media literacy and case studies debates around the sexualisation of girls and young women in popular media.

The Porn Report (2008)

A. McKee, C. Lumby, K. Albury

This book is the first mainstream study of pornography in Australia, which draws on empirical research.

Beyond the ‘Digital Divide’: Internet Diffusion and Inequality in Australia (2006)

S. Willis, B. Tranter

This study examines the social barriers to Internet use in Australia over a five-year period, using multivariate analyses of national survey data.

Notions of ICT Literacy in Australian School Education (2005)

L. Markauskaite

This paper examines the objectives of ICT literacy education and the ways in which it could be enhanced.

Meta-survey on the Use of Technologies in Education in Asia and the Pacific (2003)

Glen Farrell, Cédric Wachholz

This study identifies and analyses the different practices in the use of ICTs in education in Asia and the Pacific. it discusses countries’ policies, challenges and successful ICT integration in the region.

This section contains details of the state’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.

The age of consent in Australia is either 16 or 17 years old, depending on the state within which a sexual act was committed.

  • Enhancing Online Safety for Children Act 2015. This bill established the Children’s e-Safety Commissioner, provides for a complaints system for cyberbullying material targeted at Australian children and a system for rapid removal of that material from large social media services. The bill also provides for civil penalties, enforceable undertakings and injunctions for offences.
  • Section 271.4, Criminal Code Act. Offence of trafficking in children. A person commits this offence if he/she organises or facilitates the entry or proposed entry into, or exit or proposed exit out of, Australia, of another person who is under the age of 18 and in doing so: (i) intends that the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that entry or exit, or (ii) is reckless as to whether the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first person or another, after that entry or exit. The penalty for this offence is 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 271.7, Criminal Code Act. Offence of domestic trafficking in children. A person commits this offence if he/she organises or facilitates the transportation of another person from one place to another place within Australia and the other person is under 18 and in organising or facilitating that transportation, the first-mentioned person: (i) intends that the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first-mentioned person or another, during or following the transportation to that other place, or (ii) is reckless as to whether the other person will be used to provide sexual services or will be otherwise exploited, either by the first-mentioned person or another, during or following the transportation to that other place. The penalty for this offence is 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 272.8, Criminal Code Act. Sexual intercourse with child outside Australia.

    • Engaging in sexual intercourse with child. A person commits this offence if the person engages in sexual intercourse with a child under 16 years old outside of Australia. The penalty for this offence is imprisonment for 20 years.
    • Causing child to engage in sexual intercourse in presence of defendant. A person commits this offence if the person engages in conduct with a child under 16 which causes the child to engage in seuxal intercourse in the person’s presence outside of Australia. The penalty for this offence is imprisonment for 20 years.
  • Section 272.9, Criminal Code Act. Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with child outside Australia.

    • Engaging in sexual activity with child. A person commits this offence if he/she engages in sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with a child under 16 years old outside of Australia. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • Causing child to engage in sexual activity in presence of defendant. A person commits this offence if he/she engages in conduct in relation to a child under 16 which causes the child to engage in sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) in the presence of the person and the activity occurs outside of Australia. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • Defence – child present but defendant does not intend to derive gratification. It is a defence to either of the above offenses to prove that the offence consists only of the child being in the presence of the defendant while sexual activity is engaged in and the defendant proves that he/she did not intend to derive gratification from the presence of the child during that activity.
  • Section 272.11, Criminal Code Act. Persistent sexual abuse of child outside Australia. A person commits this offence if he/she commits an offence against subsection 272.8 or 272.9 in relation to the same child on three or more separate occasions during any period. This offence is punishable by 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 272.12, Criminal Code Act. Sexual intercourse with young person outside Australia – defendant in position of trust or authority.
    • Engaging in sexual intercourse with young person. A person commits an offence if he/she engages in sexual intercourse with a young person between the ages of 16 and 18, over whom the person is in a position of trust or authority, outside of Australia. This offence is punishable by 10 years’ imprisonment.
    • Causing young person to engage in sexual intercourse in presence of defendant. A person commits this offence if the person engages in conduct in relation to the young person and that conduct causes the young person to engage in sexual intercourse in the presence of the person, outside of Australia. The young person must be between the ages of 16 and 18, and the person must be a position of trust or authority in relation to the young person. This offence is punishable by 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 272.13, Criminal Code Act. Sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with young person outside Australia – defendant in position of trust or authority.
    • Engaging in sexual activity with young person. A person commits this offence if he/she engages in sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) with a young person between the ages of 16 and 18, over whom the person is in a position of trust or authority, outside of Australia. This offence is punishable by seven years’ imprisonment.
    • Causing young person to engage in sexual activity in presence of defendant. A person commits this offence if the person engages in conduct in relation to the young person and that conduct causes the young person to engage in sexual activity (other than sexual intercourse) in the presence of the person, outside of Australia. The young person must be between the ages of 16 and 18, and the person must be a position of trust or authority in relation to the young person. This offence is punishable by seven years’ imprisonment.
    • Defence – young person present but defendant does not intend to derive gratification. It is a defence to either of the above offenses to prove that the offence consists only of the young person being in the presence of the defendant while sexual activity is engaged in and the defendant proves that he/she did not intend to derive gratification from the presence of the young person during that activity.
  • Section 272.14, Criminal Code Act. Procuring child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia. A person commits this offence if he/she engages in conduction in relation to a child with the intention of procuring the child to engage in sexual activity (whether or not with the person) outside Australia. This applies when the child is under 16, or who the person believes to be under 16, and the conduct is wholly or partly outside Australia, the child is outside Australia when being procured, and/or the procurement occurs wholly in Australia and the child is in Australia when procurement occurs. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 272.15, Criminal Code Act. “Grooming” child to engage in sexual activity outside Australia. A person commits this offence if he/she engages in conduct in relation to a child with the intention of making it easier to procure the child to engage in sexual activity (whether or not with the person) outside Australia. This applies when the child is under 16, or who the person believes to be under 16, and the conduct is wholly or partly outside Australia, the child is outside Australia when being procured, and/or the procurement occurs wholly in Australia and the child is in Australia when procurement occurs. This offence is punishable by 12 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 272.16, Criminal Code Act. Defence based on belief about age. It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against section 272.8 or 272.9 if the defendant proves that, at the time of the sexual intercourse or sexual activity, he or she believed that the child was at least 16. It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against section 272.12 or 272.13 if the defendant proves that, at the time of the sexual intercourse or sexual activity, he or she believed that the young person was at least 18. It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against section 272.14 or 272.15 if the defendant proves that, at the time the defendant engaged in the conduct constituting the offence, he or she believed that the child was at least 16.
  • Section 273.5, Criminal Code Act. Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child pornography material outside Australia. A person commits this offence if he/she possesses or controls child pornography material; or produces, distributes or obtains child pornography material; or facilitates the production or distribution of child pornography material; and the conduct occurs outside Australia. The penalty for this offence is 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 273.6, Criminal Code Act. Possessing, controlling, producing, distributing or obtaining child abuse material outside Australia. A person commits this offence if he/she possesses or controls child abuse material; or produces, distributes or obtains child abuse material; or facilitates the production or distribution of child abuse material; and the conduct occurs outside Australia. The penalty for this offence is 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 273.7, Criminal Code Act. Aggravated offence – offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people. A person commits this offence if they commit offences against section 273.5 or 273.6 on three or more separate occasions and each offence involves two or more people. The penalty for this offence is 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.19, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service for child pornography material. A person is guilty of an offence if the person accesses material; causes material to be transmitted to himself/herself; transmits, makes available, publishes, distributes, advertises or promotes material; or solicits material and the person does so using a carriage service and the material is child pornography material. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.20, Criminal Code Act. Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service. A person commits this offence if he/she (1) has possession or control of; or (2) produces, supplies or obtains child pornography material and the person does the aforementioned action intending that the material is used by that person or by another person to commit an offence against section 474.19. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.22, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service for child abuse material. A person is guilty of an offence if the person accesses material; causes material to be transmitted to himself/herself; transmits, makes available, publishes, distributes, advertises or promotes material; or solicits material and the person does so using a carriage service and the material is child abuse material. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.23, Criminal Code Act. Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service. A person commits this offence if he/she (1) has possession or control of; or (2) produces, supplies or obtains child abuse material and the person does the aforementioned action intending that the material is used by that person or by another person to commit an offence against section 474.22. This offence is punishable by 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.24A, Criminal Code Act. Aggravated offence – offence involving conduct on 3 or more occasions and 2 or more people. A person commits this offence if they commit offences against section 474.19, 474.20, 474.22 or 474.23 on three or more separate occasions and each offence involves two or more people. The penalty for this offence is 25 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.25A, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service for sexual activity with person under 16 years of age.

    • Engaging in sexual activity with child using a carriage service. A person commits an offence if he/she engages in sexual activity with a child using a carriage service when the child is under 16 and the person is at least 18 years old. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • Causing child to engage in sexual activity with another person. A person commits an offence if he/she engages in conduct in relation to a child which causes the child to engage in sexual activity with another person when the child is under 16 years old and the participant is at least 18 years old. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • Defence – child present but defendant does not intend to derive gratification. It is a defence to either of the above crimes to prove that the conduct constituting the offence consists only of the child being present during the sexual activity and the defendant did not intend to derive gratification from the presence of the child during that activity.
  • Section 474.26, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age.

    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this intending to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with the sender; and where the recipient is someone who is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old and the sender is at least 18. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this intending to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with another person; and where the recipient is someone who is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old and the participant is someone who is, or who the sender believes to be, at least 18. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this intending to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with another person; and where the recipient is someone who is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old and the participant is someone who is, or who the sender believes to be, at least 18; and the sender intends to observe or have another person who is at least 18 years old to observe the sexual activity. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.27, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age.

    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this with the intention of making it easier to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with the sender; where the recipient is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old, and the sender is at least 18 years old. The penalty is 12 years’ imprisonment.
    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this with the intention of making it easier to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with another person; where the recipient is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old; and the participant is, or the sender believes to be, at least 18 years old. The penalty is 12 years’ imprisonment.
    • A person commits an offence if the sender uses a carriage service to transmit a communication to a recipient; and the sender does this with the intention of making it easier to procure the recipient to engage in sexual activity with another person; where the recipient is, or the sender believes to be, under 16 years old; and the participant is, or the sender believes to be, at least 18 years old; and the sender intends to observe, or have another person who is 18 or older to observe, the sexual activity. The penalty is 15 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 474.27A, Criminal Code Act. Using a carriage service to transmit indecent communication to person under 16 years of age. A person commits this offence if the sender uses a carriage services to transmit a communication to another person, which includes indecent material. This applies when the recipient is, or is someone who the sender believes to be, under 16 years old and the sender is at least 18. The penalty is seven years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 477.1, Criminal Code Act. Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence. A person is guilty of an offence if the person causes unauthorised access to data held in a computer, unauthorised modification of data held in a computer, or unauthorised impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer; and the person knows the access, modification or impairment is unauthorised, and the person intends to commit or facilitate the commission of a serious offence through said action. This offence is punishable by a penalty not exceeding the penalty applicable to the serious offence.
  • Section 477.2, Criminal Code Act. Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment. A person is guilty of this offence if he/she causes unauthorised modification of data held in a computer and knows the modification is unauthorised and the person is reckless as to whether the modification impairs, or will impair, access to data or the reliability, security or operation of data. The penalty is 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 477.3, Criminal Code Act. Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication. A person is guilty of an offence if the person causes unauthorised impairment of electronic communication to or from a computer and knows that the impairment is unauthorised. The penalty is 10 years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 478.1, Criminal Code Act. Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data. A person is guilty of an offence if the person causes unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data and he/she intends to cause the access or modification, and knows that the action is unauthorised. The penalty is imprisonment for two years.
  • Section 478.2, Criminal Code Act. Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc. A person is guilty of an offence if he/she causes any unauthorised impairment of the reliability, security or operation of data held on: a computer disk, credit card or another device storing data electronically, and the person intends to cause the impairment and knows the impairment is unauthorised. The penalty is two years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 478.3, Criminal Code Act. Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence. A person is guilty of an offence if the person possesses or controls data and intends that the data be used in committing an offence against Division 477 or facilitating the commission of such an offence. The penalty is three years’ imprisonment.
  • Section 478.4, Criminal Code Act. Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence. A person is guilty of an offence if the person produces, supplies or obtains data, and the person does so with the intention that the data be used in commission of an offence against Division 477 or facilitating the commission of such an offence. The penalty is three years’ imprisonment.

2004 – National model legislation for child sex offender reporting requirements were agreed upon by the Australasian Police Ministers’ Council. Throughout Australia, the Australian National Child Offender Register allows police from all jurisdictions to share information about registered persons and enables alerts to be created when registered persons are travelling.

2006 – The Australian government established the National Indigenous Violence and Child Abuse Intelligence Task Force (NIITF) to build a national understanding of the problem of child abuse in Indigenous communities. The task force was designed to inform policies and programming, and assist in reducing child abuse in these communities.

2007 – Throughout 2007, the Australian Federal Police’s Child Protection Operations team, then known as the Online Child Sexual Exploitation Team, worked nationally and internationally to investigate online child sexual exploitation and protect its victims. At least three Operations led to multiple arrests, removal of children from harm, and the uncovering of more than one million child sexual abuse images.

2008 – The Child Protection Operations Team received $49 million in government funding to expand its ability to fight and prevent online child abuse. The team continued working nationally and through international cooperation to arrest more offenders on child sexual exploitation charges.

Also in 2008, the government committed $125.8 million to fund the Cyber-safety Plan. The plan included initiatives to combat online threats and protect children from inappropriate online content, through education programming for teachers, ISP filtering services and a Youth Advisory Group to assist the government in creating age-appropriate protection measures. It also created an expanded working group focused on online safety issues.

2012 – The Australian National Victim Image Library (ANVIL) became operational nationwide after the Home Affairs and Justice Minister pledged $4.6 million to its national roll-out. ANVIL was created by the Queensland Police Service in partnership with the Australian Federal Police and the national coordination agency CrimTrac. The objective of the library is to more efficiently identify child victims and minimize investigator exposure to child abuse images.