2000 - Project Harmony (PH) International implemented a total of three school connectivity-related grants, which were funded by the US State Department Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA). The pilot program in 2000, Armenia Connectivity – 2000 (AC2K), succeeded in connecting 24 secondary schools in the capital, Yerevan, and a few neighboring regions in a mini network. 330 secondary schools across the country were successfully connected and each equipped with Internet Computer Centers (ICC). Following the pilot program, the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) signed a0 Memorandum of Understanding with PH International over a three-year period intended to continue to create computer centers in national schools and establishing Internet connections. The successful agreement was extended in February 2004 with the purpose to expand connectivity to other ICT Centers run by the UNDP.
2001 - With technical assistance from USAID and the World Bank, Armenia has adopted ICT Master Strategy. In this strategy the government makes a commitment to provide basic ICT education through an ICT literacy program, as well as certification courses and skills training. ICT educational programs were to be developed for all levels of the population, from basic to secondary schools as well as further education for adults.
2004 - PH International initiated the Mobile Lab Project to provide Internet access to schools in more remote and unconnected communities. A truck with five computers and other peripherals such as printers and scanners offered cycles of basic computer and Internet literacy to these communities and schools. The Harmony Information Technologies and Education Development Fund took over this project in 2005, and achieved its goal of promoting ICT literacy supporting rural schools by completing three cycles in different regions, concluding in October 2006.
2007 - Within the framework of the National Educational Program 2007-2015, the government has been overseeing the restoration of teaching facilities, the acquisition of teaching equipment, the preparation of regulatory acts and educational criteria for vocational specialties, teaching plans and textbooks that meet modern requirements. It was additionally stipulated that approximately 3,500 educators have been retrained to comply with international standards.
2009 - The ‘Keeping the Children Safe Online’ project was launched by the World Vision Armenia with the objective of raising the awareness of children and adults about online threats and safety on the Internet. Since 2011, the project has entered into cooperation with partners such as Microsoft Armenia and Media Education NGO, “Children supportcenter” of the Armenian Relief Fund and relevant departments of the RA Police, enlarging the scope of the activities and increasing the project’s reach.
IREX has completed the nternet Access and Training Program (IATP), which was initiated in 1995 by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and in 2007, was funded by USAID. The program promoted internet usage and information access by setting up IATP centers in over 250 locations in 11 Eurasian countries, including Armenia. In addition, IATP staff created over a dozen training modules, covering basic computer literacy, Web design, internet research, blogging, and wiki creation.
2010 - The Foreign Financing Projects Management Center (FFPMC) has been implementing the E-Society and Innovation for Competitiveness (EIC) Project, which was financed and developed by the World Bank in October 2010. The project aims to increase Armenia’s ability to compete in the electronic society by further developing the underlying infrastructure. Scheduled to be completed in June 2016, the project has financially supported the design and development of the country’s ICT infrastructure through the improvement of the existing national broadband network, implementation of ‘Computers for All Program’, and ‘Digital Citizen Program’. The programs intend to educate the public and increase their trust and security in electronic services. Moreover, the EIC Project also aims to foster enterprise innovation and provide assistance for the management of project implementation.
Over the two years, PH International has provided training and opportunities for Armenian, Azeri, and American youth through its Developing Online Tools for Community Outreach and Mobilization (DOTCOM) program, which was launched in 2008. The program,sponsored by the Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, U.S. State Department, was implemented to create socially conscious media impacting communities in the U.S. and the Caucasus.
2013 - European Commission launched eTwinning Plus, extending services of eTwinning to a select number of schools and teachers from Ukraine, Tunisia, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The program is part of the European Commission’s Neighbourhood Policy, which encourages links and collaboration with those countries in European Union immediate neighborhood. Schools and kindergartens from the neighboring countries can communicate, collaborate, develop projects, share through the use of ICT with the European Union school community.
2014 - The Center for Education Projects (PIU) has implemented the second project of the ten year “Education Quality and Relevance” program, which was a initiated in 2003 and financed by the World Bank. The main purpose of this project was to develop the Armenian Education System towards the knowledge economy.The second project continued the activities directed to introducing the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the teaching/learning processes, assisted the process of establishing institutional system for teachers professional development ensuring highly qualified pedagogical and administrative cadre. The program also developed Armenian Education Portal, which is managed by the National Center Educational Technology. In addition to e-textbooks, the portal provide Internet User Guide that helps teachers and students to navigate the web and learn about the opportunities created by information and communication technologies and efficient use of resources and educational resources enriching language issues.
The PIU of the Ministry of Education and Sciences began implementing the Education Improvement Project, which was financed by the World Bank and is expected to be completed in 2019. The project aims to improve school readiness of children entering primary education, improve physical conditions and the availability of educational resources in upper secondary schools, and support improved quality and relevance in higher education institutions in Armenia. Within the project, training will be provided for representatives of schools and universities in the use of ICT, as well as participating schools will be supplied with ICT equipment.
2015 - Through its Village Program, the Orange Foundation has supplied computers for the local school in a small village of Paravakar, Armenia. A joint initiative of Media Education Center, Internet Society of Armenia and Orange launched ‘Safer Internet Armenia 2015’ project to help schools create safe, secure and efficient learning environments. Through this project over 100 teachers of secondary schools of Yerevan’s 7 districts have received training in the ‘Assessment of Internet Safety and Security of Schools.’
The same year, European Commission launched the Eastern Partnership Connect (EaPConnect) project that establishes and operates a high-capacity broadband internet network for research and education across Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It will integrate the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region into the pan-European GÉANT network, which will decrease the digital divide.
2016 - The Armenian Safer Internet Committee has been observing Safer Internet Day since 2009. In 2016, the Committee organized open lessons in internet safety, parent-teacher meetings, and teacher training workshops, during which issues related to safer usage of the internet and mobile technologies were discussed, and informational and educational materials were provided. The Committee also launched a new educational portal for teachers and school children.
The World Bank has completed its Promoting Youth Inclusion in Armenia project, which was launched in 2014. The objective of the project was to promote the social and economic inclusion of vulnerable youth through increased access to opportunities for leadership and livelihood development. The project organized regional conferences with job fairs, CV workshops, eLearning courses and ICT skills development, as well as developed a Youth Information Portal that provides youth entrepreneurship and business skills training.
Armenian Progressive Youth
A non-profit, non-political organization aiming to support, inspire and engage young people from Armenia and all over the world to develop their social leadership skills, to take their civic responsibility and to act as change-makers. It encourages young people to use digital media for raising awareness on different issues and fostering mutual understanding and intercultural dialogue in Europe.
Armenian Safer Internet Committee
Also known as Safe.am, the organization is aimed at improving digital media safety, raising the population’s awareness about safe Internet use, digital rights, the protection and education of children and teenagers using the Internet and new online technologies. The site also features a hotline where users can report allegedly illegal online content.
Center for Education Projects (PIU)
The center was created by the Ministry of Education and Science to implement reforming projects to improve education quality, effectiveness, access and relevance in the Republic of Armenia.
The national computer emergency response group in Armenian is managed by the Internet Society of Armenia. It acts as the national center for information security and operates the Internet Society.
Child Development Foundation (CDF)
The organization contributes to the protection of child rights, promotes children’s healthy development and inclusion of vulnerable groups into society and hosts seminars and trainings for parents and children, as well as for the specialists in the field of child protection, education and community development.
Foundation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO)
The foundation contributes to the further development of humanitarian cooperation and intercultural communication in the Commonwealth of Independent States in the area of education, science, culture, mass communications, information, archives, sport, tourism and youth matters.
Harmony Information Technologies and Education Development Fund
Harmony Fund was established in June 2005 in the Republic of Armenia with the objective to promote development and application of information and telecommunication technologies. It has implemented quite significant number of IT/ITC projects, including system design, development of software and database management systems and system specifications, drafting and installation of computer networks, IT consultancy and delivery of IT services across Armenia, as well as delivering training in IT skills and capacities, et cetera.
A non-profit that is coordinated out of the National Children’s Library in Yerevan, with financial support from the Open Society Foundation. Several professional development workshops have been held for teachers from communities across the country.
Internet Governance Forum
The IGF was founded by the UN in 2006 to serve as a discussion platform for internet governance policy issues. It brings together various stakeholders to determine best practices for internet policy. Past areas of focus include cybersecurity, human rights, inclusivity and openness.
INTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Its mission is to enable police forces to collaborate globally to fight crime in the Internet age. Three areas of focus are crimes against children (with a focus on internet crimes and travelling sex offenders), cybercrime and human trafficking.
Media Education Center
The center provides media and information literacy resources and tools for secondary schools and high schools in the country. They also conduct research on the youth’s media and internet use, and develop public awareness campaigns about online risks while promoting the protection and education of children using the Internet and new online technology. The center is one of the eNACSO (The European NGO Alliance for Child Safety Online) partners involved in a project funded by the Safer Internet Project to develop a European network of children’s NGOs with expertise on child Internet safety, to be the focal point representing civil society in relation to online child protection.
National Center Educational Technology (NCET)
A non-profit organization develops contemporary educational environment in Armenia and introduce ICT in general schools and ensures their further availability. The organization also manages Armenian Education Portal.
National Commission on the Protection of Children's Rights in the Republic of Armenia
The Commission consist of members of which include both concerned state bodies and representatives of non-governmental organizations. It implements a unified state policy on protection of children’s rights and interests, ensuring the basic safeguards for the protection of their rights and interests, and developing suggestions for solution of the problems.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC)
A nonprofit organization launched by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, whose aim to empower the world’s poorest children through education by providing a low cost laptops.
Registered under the legal name Project Harmony, Inc., the organization was founded in 1985 for the purpose of cultural and educational exchanges between the then-USSR and the United States. PH International’s mission is to build strong global communities by fostering civic engagement, cross-cultural learning, and increased opportunities in the digital age.
World Vision Armenia
A Christian humanitarian organization working to create lasting change in the lives of children, families and communities living in poverty. It serves all people regardless of religion, race, ethnicity or gender. World Vision came to Armenia twenty years ago providing emergency aid to the victims of December 1988 devastating earthquake with a check for one million dollars and over the next few months delivered nearly $3 million worth of medical supplies and relief. During the next 20 years their projects have gone beyond meeting the demands of crisis situations to changing the quality of life in entire communities and helping Armenians to restore their country.
Yerevan Zatik Children Support Center
The center provides day-time care to 100 children in difficult life situation and round-the-clock care for six months to 20 children aged 3-18 in difficult life situation. The centres actively cooperate with the regional departments for the protection of the rights of the family, women and children. In the recent years 20 day-time centres for children’s development and rehabilitation (non-state) have been created in different regions of the republic.
Combatting Child Sexual Abuse (2015)Petra Jeney
The study provides an overview of existing legislation at European Union, Member State and the international level related to online child sexual abuse, as well as the role of law enforcement agencies in combatting child sexual abuse online and other governmental and private sector initiatives.
Child Rights Situation Analysis: Armenia (2015)Save the Children
An in-depth description of the extent to which children’s rights are being exercised and an analysis of the obstacles to, and enablers of, their realization.The aim of this analysis is to gather sufficient information to produce a ‘good enough’ analysis to inform strategic decision-making.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN EDUCATION IN ASIA (2014)UNESCO,UNESCO Institute of Statistics
A comparative analysis of ICT integration and e-readiness in schools across Asia
Global Alliance Against Child Sexual Abuse Online: Armenia (2014)European Commission
Report on Armenia's commitment to stop Child Sexula Abuse Online
ICT in Education in Central and West Aisa (2012)Asian Development Bank
Progerss of implementation of ICT in education sector of Central and West Asian countries
Promotion of the use of Information and Communication Technologies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training in CIS countries (2012)UNICEF
This analytical report presents the results of a comparative study on current situation and main tendencies in ICT use in TVET in CIS countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Besides, the report includes recommendations on further development and improvement of the use of modern ICTs in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).
This section contains details of the country’s laws as they relate to sexual offenses, children and the use of the Internet in the commission of criminal activity. Where possible, sentence details have been given, including whether an increased custodial penalty is imposed where the victim is a child.
The age of simple majority in Armenia is eighteen. The legal age of consent for sexual activity is sixteen. The age of consent for marriage for boys is eighteen and seventeen for girls.
Armenia has signed, ratified and entered into law the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime (February 2010).
- Article 112, Criminal Code. Infliction of Willful Heavy Damage to Health. This Article states that anyone who inflicts willful bodily damage which endangers the victim’s life or causes loss of sight, speech, hearing or any organ, loss of functions of the organ, or which causes irreversible ugliness on the face, other damage endangering the victim’s life or leads to a disorder which causes the loss of no less than one third of the capacity for work, or caused disruption of pregnancy, mental illness, drug or toxic addiction, is guilty of a crime. The offender is liable to imprisonment for three to seven years. If the offense is accompanied by rape or other violent sexual acts, an aggravated sentence of between five and fifteen years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 123, Criminal Code. Infection with the AIDS Virus. States that it is a criminal offense to subject another person to the obvious danger of infection with AIDS. The offense is punishable by a fine of 100 minimum salaries and imprisonment for up to two months, or imprisonment for one year. The Article also states that anyone who knows to be infected with the virus and willfully infects another person with AIDS is liable to imprisonment for five years. This sentence will be increased to between three and eight years’ imprisonment if the victim is a minor or a pregnant woman, or if the crime was committed jointly by more than one offender.
- Article 124, Criminal Code. Infecting with Venereal or Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for one to three months or a fine for anyone who knowingly infects another person with a venereal or other sexually transmitted disease. Where the victim is a minor or a pregnant woman, or where the crime was committed jointly by more than one person, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for up to two years, or a fine, will apply.
- Article 132, Criminal Code. Trafficking in Persons. This Article states that recruiting, transporting, transferring, hiding, harboring or receiving a person for the purpose of exploitation, by the use of violence, threat or other forms of compulsion, kidnapping, fraud or abuse of authority, or by taking advantage of the victim’s vulnerability , is punishable by imprisonment for five to ten years. An aggravated sentence of seven to twelve years’ imprisonment, with or without confiscation of property, will apply where the offense has been committed against a person under the age of eighteen. Where the crime has been committed by an organized group, or where it caused the death of the victim through negligence, the penalty will be increased to twelve to fifteen years’ imprisonment, with or without confiscation of property.
- Article 132.1, Criminal Code. Engagement of Other Persons in Prostitution or Other Forms of Sexual Exploitation, Forced Labor or Services, or Slavery or Practices Similar to Slavery. This Article states that exploiting a person by involving him/her in prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, or putting or keeping in slavery or practices similar to slavery, is punishable by imprisonment for a term of five to ten years, with or without confiscation of property. Where the same act is committed against a person under the age of eighteen, it is punished by imprisonment for a term of seven to twelve years, with or without confiscation of property. Where the offense has been committed by an organized group, or where it caused the death of the victim through negligence, the penalty will be increased to twelve to fifteen years’ imprisonment, with or without confiscation of property
- Article 138, Criminal Code. Rape. States that anyone who rapes a woman against her will, using violence or threatening to do so, or taking advantage of the woman’s helpless situation, is liable to imprisonment for three to six years. The Article also states that rape committed against a minor; by a group of people; committed with particular cruelty; by a person previously convicted under Article 138 or 139 of this Code, is punished by imprisonment for a term of four to ten years. The same penalty applies if the offense caused the death of the victim or serious medical consequences. Where the offense has been committed against a person under the age of fourteen, it is punished by imprisonment for a term of eight to fifteen years.
- Article 139, Criminal Code. Violent Sexual Actions. States that homosexuality or other actions of a sexual nature against the will of the victim, by use or threat to use violence against him or another person or by use of the victim’s helpless situation, is punished by imprisonment for three to six years. An aggravated penalty of four to ten years’ imprisonment applies where the victim is a minor; the offense was committed jointly by more than one person; the crime was committed with particular cruelty; the victim died or suffered serious consequences; the offender has been previously convicted under Article 138 or 139 of this Code. Where the offense has been committed against a person under the age of fourteen, it is punished by imprisonment for a term of eight to fifteen years.
- Article 140, Criminal Code. Compelling a Person to Sexual Acts. States that forcing a person into sexual intercourse, homosexuality or other sexual actions, by means of blackmail, threats to destroy, damage or seize property, or using the financial or other dependence of the victim, is punishable by a fine of 200 to 300 times of the minimum wage, or imprisonment for one to three years.
- Article 141, Criminal Code. Sexual Acts with a Minor under Sixteen. This Article states that anyone of or over the age of eighteen who has sexual intercourse or performs other sexual acts with a person obviously under sixteen, is guilty of an offense. The penalty is a fine of 100 minimum salaries or imprisonment for two years, unless the act constitutes a more serious crime, specified in Article 138, 139 or 140.
- Article 142, Criminal Code. Obscene Acts. States that engaging in obscene acts with a person under the age of sixteen is punishable by a fine of 200 to 400 times the minimum wage or two years’ imprisonment, unless the act constitutes a more serious crimes, specified in Article 140 or 141. Where the offense was committed by the use of violence or threats, an increased penalty of three years’ imprisonment will apply.
- Article 166. Criminal Code. Involving a Child Into Antisocial Activity. The article states that any involvement, by a person who reached 18 years, of a child into regular use of alcoholic drinks, strong or other narcotic drugs not for medical purposes, into prostitution, vagrancy or beggary, into preparation or dissemination of pornography or pornographic materials, is punished with correctional labor for up to 1 year, or with arrest for the term of 1-2 months, or with imprisonment for the term of 5 years. The same action which was committed by a parent, teacher or other person in charge of rearing the child, is punished with correctional labor for up to 2 years, or arrest for up to 2 months, or imprisonment for the term of up to 5 years, with deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or practice certain activities for up to 3 years.
- Article 179, Criminal Code. Engaging in Prostitution. The article states that engaging in prostitution is punishable with a fine in the amount of twenty times the minimum wage. Same action, carried out within a year from the appointment of an administrative fine is punished with a fine in the amount of forty times the minimum wage.
- Article 261, Criminal Code. Involvement in Prostitution. Defines the offense of forcing another person into prostitution by the use of violence, abuse of authority, blackmail, threat to destroy or damage property, dissemination of defamatory information about the victim or close relatives, or deception. The offense is punishable by imprisonment for up to two years, detention for one to three months, or a fine of 200 to 400 times the minimum salary, unless the act constitutes a more serious crime as specified in Article 132 or 132.1 in this Code. Where the act is committed by a group of people by prior agreement, or by abuse of an official position, an aggravated sentence of two to six years’ imprisonment will apply. Where the victim is under the age of eighteen or suffers a mental disorder, or where the offense was committed by an organized group, the penalty will be increased to three to eight years’ imprisonment.
- Article 262, Criminal Code. Inciting into Prostitution. States that establishing, managing or maintaining a facility for prostitution, using any public facility for such purpose, regularly providing an apartment or other dwelling to another person for prostitution, or contributing to prostitution in another form for receiving benefits from property, is punished with a fine in the amount of 300 to 500 times of the minimum wage, or with imprisonment for one to four years. Where the offense was committed by a group of persons with prior agreement, or with abuse of authority, an aggravated penalty of two to six years’ imprisonment will apply. This will be increased to three to ten years’ imprisonment in the following cases: the victim is under the age of eighteen; the victim has a mental disorder; the offense was committed by an organized group.
- Article 263, Criminal Code. Pornography. Imposes a penalty of imprisonment for up to two years, detention for up to two months, or a fine of 200 to 400 times the minimum wage for anyone who illegally disseminates, advertises, sells or manufactures pornographic material or items, including printed publications, films and videos, images or other pornographic objects. The Article also states that forcing minors to become involved in creation of software, video or film materials, pictures or other items of a pornographic nature, as well as presenting children’s pornography through computer network, is punishable with a fine of 400 to 800 times the minimum wage, detention for up to three months, or imprisonment for up to two years. Where the offense was committed by an organized group, an aggravated penalty of imprisonment for two to four years will apply.
- Chapter 24, Criminal Code. Crimes against Computer Information Security. The chapter criminalizes actions such as accessing computer information systems without permission, changing computer information, computer sabotage, illegal appropriation of computer data, manufacture or sale of special devices for illegal penetration into computer systems or networks, manufacture, use and dissemination of hazardous software and breach of rules for operation of a computer system or network.
Actions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Armenia has acceded, with no declarations or reservations to articles 16, 17(e) and 34 (c), to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and to articles 2 and 3, to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.
2011 - Council of Europe launched Eastern Partnership – Cooperation against Cybercrime ([email protected]) project, which was implemented in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and the Ukraine through 2014. The goal of the project was to strengthen the capacities of criminal justice authorities of Eastern Partnership countries to cooperate effectively against cybercrime in line with European and international instruments and practices. Currently, [email protected] II and III are being implemented to assist law enforcement to fight cybercrime. The projects will run through 2017.
2012 - Along with 54 countries, Armenia has joined the Global Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Online. The Alliance unites Ministers of the Interior and of Justice from each country to fight against Child Sexual Abuse Online, to rescue victims, to develop more effective prosecution, and to reduce the amount of child sexual abuse images available online.
2013 - The Ministry of Justice adopted the National Program for the Protection of Children’s Rights for 2013- 2016 to continue its commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.The same year, by the Order of the Head of Police of the Republic of Armenia (RA) 3rd Department of Fight against domestic violence and Juvenile issues has been established within the Criminal Prosecution Department of the RA Police. The 3rd Department and territorial subdivisions deal with juvenile issues aimed at disclosure of cases of sexual exploitation of children, as well as of any other activities of involving children in prostitution or preparation of pornographic materials or items.
Safer Internet Armenia manages a Hotline (60272212) that receives incidents on the internet reports. The reports related to child online protection can also be made to the Armenia Computer Incident Response Team (CERT AM).
To raise public awareness about the problems children face online, including grooming, self-production of images that result in the production of new child pornography, the RA Police organizes preventive educational activities in schools, higher educational institutions, and internet clubs. These issues are also covered on a regular basis within the framework of “02” of Public TV Channel program. In addition, RA Police provides hotline service for immediate response to such cases and publications of child sexual abuse related materials are continued to be submitted on the police’s website.